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弟子规浅释 Standards for Students 第六章﹕泛爱众 Chapter Six: ON CHERISHING ALL LIVING BEINGS - 4
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第六章﹕泛爱众

Chapter Six: ON CHERISHING ALL LIVING BEINGS

凡是人,皆须爱,天同覆,地同载。
行高者,名自高,人所重,非貌高。
才大者,望自大,人所服,非言大。
己有能,勿自私,人有能,勿轻訾。
勿谄富,勿骄贫,勿厌故,勿喜新。
人不闲,勿事搅,人不安,勿话扰。
人有短,切莫揭,人有私,切莫说。
道人善,即是善,人知之,愈思勉。
扬人短,即是恶,疾之甚,祸且作。
善相劝,德皆建,过不规,道两亏。
凡取与,贵分晓,与宜多,取宜少。
将加人,先问己,己不欲,即速已。
恩欲报,怨欲忘,报怨短,报恩长。
待婢仆,身贵端,虽贵端,慈而宽。
势服人,心不然,理服人,方无言。

ren

bu

xian

 

wu

shi

jiao

别人

没有

空闲

 

不要

别的事

搅混

others

without

free time

 

do not

other matter

to bother

别人没有空闲时,不要拿无关之事去打搅。
If you see that a person is busy, don’t bother him with other matters.

ren

bu

an

wu

hua

rao

别人

没有

安宁

不要

言语

烦扰

others

are not

calm

 

do not

useless words

to annoy

别人情绪不安时,不要用无谓的话去吵扰。
If you see that someone’s upset, don’t annoy him with your idle chatter.

ren

you

duan

 

qie

mo

jie

别人

短处

 

绝对

不要

揭穿

others

have

shortcomings

 

definitely

do not

to expose

发现他人的缺失,绝对不要揭穿。
Although you may know someone’s faults, there is no need to tell everyone.

ren

you

si

qie

mo

shuo

别人

隐私

绝对

不要

宣传

others

have

private matters

 

definitely

do not

to speak

发现他人的秘密,千万不要张扬。
The personal business of others should not be the subject of talk.


有些人并非恶人,但却招人厌恶;有些人并非故意,却总做出损人不利己的事。原因无他,就是不懂得在何时何地,可否对何人说何话罢了!前面说﹕「凡是人,皆须爱」,但「爱」必须以「义」为依归,才不会变成乱爱。

Some people are not evil, yet they are loathed by others. Some people do not have bad intentions, yet they always do things that hurt others without benefiting themselves. There is no other reason for this, except that such people do not understand the art of saying the right things to the right people at the right time and the right place. A previous line in the text said, "For everyone throughout the world, cherish a fond regard." However, such fond regard should be based upon what is right, or else it becomes indiscriminate love.

所谓「义者,宜也」,也就是说,言行要适宜;言行若适宜,人际关系就圆融无碍了。要人际关系圆融无碍,这可真是一门没有固定课本,也没有固定教师,活到老,学到老的终生课程。

What is right means what is appropriate. In other words, we should speak and act appropriately. When our words and actions are appropriate, our relationships with others will be smooth and unobstructed. Learning to maintain harmonious relationships with people is a lesson that we continue to study into our old age and for which there is no fixed textbook or teacher .

若谈话的时机不适当,就算对适当的人说适当的话,好也变成不好;更罔论是谈不适当的话,或是无聊琐屑的事了。要是谈话的对象不适当,就算讲的内容适当,也只是「对牛弹琴」;若谈话的内容不但不适当,还是与他人声名休戚相关的,那可是「祸从口出」,后患无穷!所以本章所谈的,是基本言谈守则,不可掉以轻心。

If we speak at the wrong time, then even if we are talking to the right person and saying the right things, what was originally good be- comes bad. How much worse it would be if we are saying inappropriate things or engaging in idle chatter. If we are not speaking to the right person, then even if what we are saying is appropriate, it is like "strumming the lute to a cow ." If the topic of conversation is improper and affects someone else’s reputation, then it is a case of "bringing on disasters with the mouth"-the consequences will be endless. This section discusses the basic guidelines of conversation, which should not be taken lightly.

总之,人不得闲时,再拿别的事来找他,无异是杠上加担,这会「失人」;别人不安宁时,再拿别的话来烦他,不啻雪上加霜,这是「失言」。至于谈话的内容,总以「长话短说,闲话少说」而为旨归,务必隐恶扬善;否则会伤害他人,既失言又失人,甚至惹祸上身,更祸延家国。

In general, to approach a person who is busy with other matters is like adding more weight to the load on his shoulders; that would be a poor way of dealing with people. To disturb someone who is distressed with unnecessary chatter is like "adding frost to snow"-that would be making a mistake in speech. As to the content of what is said, we should make a point of being concise and to the point and of avoiding unnecessary idle talk. We should definitely expose others , good points and not talk about their shortcomings; otherwise, we will certainly hurt others, which would be a double mistake in speech and human relations. We would then be in trouble ourselves, and also cause trouble for our family and our country.

仁者宅心仁厚,不忍伤人烦人,所以通常寡言;智者观察入微,不会失人失言,所以通常慎言。寡言不会招来是非,慎言不会招来仇怨;能这样注意自己的口舌,言语方面可能招来的过失和祸患,也就微乎其微了!

Human people are always kind and magnanimous; they cannot bear to hurt or annoy others. Therefore, they usually speak very little. Wise people have a penetrating understanding of things and do not make poor judgments in dealing with people or talking to them; they are always careful in their speech. By speaking little, one avoids gossip. By speaking with caution, one avoids causing resentment. If one is able to watch one’s words in this way, one will hardly make any mistakes or suffer any calamities on account of one’s speech.

孔子说﹕「言寡尤,行寡悔,虽蛮貊之邦行矣!」这就是说﹕能言语忠信,行事笃敬,就可以畅行天下而无阻了!人生在世有什么比这更自由,更自在的呢?一般人错解自由,以为想说什么就说什么,爱做什么就做什么,这就是自由;不知这种胡言乱语,横行无忌的假自由,会破坏多少人的自由,也会令自己在祸患后,永远失去自由。

Confucius said, "When there is little to blame in one’s words and little to regret in one’s actions, one will travel at ease even in barbaric lands!" In other words, if one’s speech is trustworthy and one’s actions are sincere, one will be able to travel freely throughout the world! In this world, what greater freedom is there? Most people have a mistaken idea that freedom means being able to say and do whatever they feel like. By indulging in the false freedom of speaking and acting recklessly, they intrude upon the freedom of countless others and permanently lose their own freedom when the calamitous consequences of their careless behavior befall upon them.

前面几章说过﹕「话说多,不如少;惟其是,勿佞巧。」《朱子治家格言》里也告诫我们﹕「人有喜庆,不可生妒忌心;人有祸患,不可生喜幸心。」事不关己,固然没有必要嚼舌;人纵有过恶,还是多多包涵为妙。

Some lines in a preceding pas- sage of text said: To talk just a little is better than to chatter non-stop all day long. Talk only about what you’re sure of; don’t use cunning or flowery words. Mr. Chu’s Rules for Managing the Householdwarns us: "When others have cause to rejoice, we must not be jealous. When others suffer disasters, we must not feel glad." If a matter does not concern us, there is no need to comment on it. Even if people have their bad sides, we should try to be tolerant.


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