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Mindfulness In Plain English - Chapter 5: The Practice
 
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Mindfulness In Plain English

佛教禅修直解

by Mahathera Henepola Gunaratana

德宝法师著作
梁国雄居士译

Chapter 5: The Practice

第五章 禅修的实践

Although there are many subjects of meditation, we strongly recommend you start with focusing your total undivided attention on your breathing to gain some degree of shallow concentration. Remember that you are not practicing a deep absorption or pure concentration technique. You are practicing mindfulness for which you need only a certain degree of shallow concentration. You want to cultivate mindfulness culminating in insight and wisdom to realize the truth as it is. You want to know the working of your body-mind complex exactly as it is. You want to get rid of all psychological annoyance to make your life really peaceful and happy.

可用的禅修对象很多,但我们仍强烈推荐你由呼吸开始,透过专注呼吸来达致某程度的基本定力。请记住,这么做并不是说,你在修习一种可达致深定的纯粹止禅技巧,你在修习静观(留意觉察),你只须适度的基本定力即可。你想培育和发展觉察力,希望最后能获得洞悉诸法实相的内观智慧。你想确切地如实了解自己的身心组合,你想消除所有内心烦恼,令生命达到真正的安宁与快乐。

The mind cannot be purified without seeing things as they really are. "Seeing things as they really are" is such a heavily loaded and ambiguous phrase. Many beginning meditators wonder what we mean, for anyone who has clear eye sight can see objects as they are.

若未能如实地看到事物真相,心意是无法清净的。「如实地看到事物真相」是一个那么意味深长而又含糊不清的术语,以致初学者可能摸不着头脑,不明白我们的意思,因为视力正常的人不是本来就能如实地看清事物吗?

When we use this phrase in reference to insight gained from our meditation, what we mean is not seeing things superficially with our regular eyes, but seeing things with wisdom as they are in themselves. Seeing with wisdom means seeing things within the framework of our body/mind complex without prejudices or biases springing from our greed, hatred and delusion. Ordinarily when we watch the working of our mind/body complex, we tend to hide or ignore things which are not pleasant to us and to hold onto things which are pleasant. This is because our minds are generally influenced by our desires, resentment and delusion. Our ego, self or opinions get in our way and color our judgment.

可是,当我们用此术语来描述从禅修所获得的内观智慧时,并不是指用肉眼来表面地看事物,而是指以智慧看到事物本身的真相,「以智慧看到」的意思是:看到以身心组合框架范围内的事物,当中没有因贪瞋痴而起的成见或偏见。平常地,当我们观察身心组合时,总倾向忽略不可爱的东西,而去执取可爱的东西,这是因为我们的心经常受着贪瞋痴的影响,我们的自我、私心、个人见解等都会闯进来左右我们的判断。

When we mindfully watch our bodily sensations, we should not confuse them with mental formations, for bodily sensations can arise without anything to do with the mind. For instance, we sit comfortably. After a while, there can arise some uncomfortable feeling on our back or in our legs. Our mind immediately experiences that discomfort and forms numerous thoughts around the feeling. At that point, without trying to confuse the feeling with the mental formations, we should isolate the feeling as feeling and watch it mindfully. Feeling is one of the seven universal mental factors. The other six are contact, perception, mental formations, concentration, life force, and awareness.

当我们留意观察自己的身体感觉时,不要误以为它们是一些心行(Mental Formations)[1],因为身体感觉是可以完全不依赖心意而生起的。例如:我们舒服地坐着,不久之后,背部或腿部可能会出现不舒服的感受,我们的心立即感到不适,并且环绕着那感受生起很多想法。那时,不可把感受与心行活动混为一谈,我们应把感受脱离出来,独立地进行留意观察。感受是七个普遍的心理因素之一,其余六个是:接触、想(知觉)、作意(注意)、定、生命力与心行(有意图的思维活动)。

At another time, we may have a certain emotion such as, resentment, fear, or lust. Then we should watch the emotion exactly as it is without trying to confuse it with anything else. When we bundle our form, feeling, perceptions, mental formations and consciousness up into one and try to watch all of them as feeling, we get confused, as we will not be able to see the source of feeling. If we simply dwell upon the feeling alone, ignoring other mental factors, our realization of truth becomes very difficult. We want to gain the insight into the experience of impermanence to over come our resentment; our deeper knowledge of unhappiness overcomes our greed which causes our unhappiness; our realization of selflessness overcomes ignorance arising from the notion of self. We should see the mind and body separately first. Having comprehended them separately, we should see their essential interconnectedness. As our insight becomes sharp, we become more and more aware of the fact that all the aggregates are cooperating to work together. None can exist without the other. We can see the real meaning of the famous metaphor of the blind man who has a healthy body to walk and the disabled person who has very good eyes to see. Neither of them alone can do much for himself. But when the disabled person climbs on the shoulders of the blind man, together they can travel and achieve their goals easily. Similarly, the body alone can do nothing for itself. It is like a log unable to move or do anything by itself except to become a subject of impermanence, decay and death. The mind itself can do nothing without the support of the body. When we mindfully watch both body and mind, we can see how many wonderful things they do together.

其他时候,某一情绪,例如憎恨、恐惧或爱欲等也许会出现,那时,我们就应确切地如实观察着那个情绪,不可与其他东西混淆在一起。当我们把色、受、想、行、识等五蕴[2]捆扎为一并视之为感受时,我们就会困惑起来,因为这样做令感受生起的原因变得含糊不清。如果我们只单单安住于感受本身,没有把它从诸蕴独立地分开出来,要体证真理就变得很困难了。

我们希望能亲自洞悉无常,以克服自身的苦恼与无明(Ignorance):对苦恼的深入了解可克服造成苦恼的贪欲,领悟「无我」可克服由「我想」引起的「无明」。欲达到这些内观智慧,我们不但要懂得分辨身与心,还要看到它们的相互联系状态(Interconnectedness)。随着内观变得敏锐起来,我们也会越来越明白五蕴身心一起协同运作的事实,知道没有一蕴是可以不依余蕴而能独存的。于是,我们了解到那个着名的盲人与跛子故事的真正寓意── 两个人单独来看,都是能力有限的,可是,当盲人背着有视力的跛子和听从跛子的指导时,两人才可一起踏上旅途,轻易地达到他们的目标。身与心也是一样,身体不能单独为自己做到什么,它好像一块木头,本身不能走动或做到什么,只能陷于无常、腐坏与死亡。心灵没有身体的支持也做不了什么,可是,当我们留心地观察着身心时,亦即是当身心一起合作时,我们就可以看见很多奇妙的事情了。

As long as we are sitting in one place we may gain some degree of mindfulness. Going to a retreat and spending several days or several months watching our feelings, perceptions, countless thoughts and various states of consciousness may make us eventually calm and peaceful. Normally we do not have that much time to spend in one place meditating all the time. Therefore, we should find a way to apply our mindfulness to our daily life in order for us to be able to handle daily unforeseeable eventualities. What we face every day is unpredictable. Things happen due to multiple causes and conditions, as we are living in a conditional and impermanent world. Mindfulness is our emergency kit, readily available at our service at any time. When we face a situation where we feel indignation, if we mindfully investigate our own mind, we will discover bitter truths in ourselves. That is we are selfish; we are egocentric; we are attached to our ego; we hold on to our opinions; we think we are right and everybody else is wrong; we are prejudices; we are biased; and at the bottom of all of this, we do not really love ourselves. This discovery, though bitter, is a most rewarding experience. And in the long run, this discovery delivers us from deeply rooted psychological and spiritual suffering.

在一个地方坐禅,我们可以修得某程度的静观力。能参加密集禅修,用几天、乃至几个月时间去留意观察自身的感受、知觉(想蕴)、数不清的想法(行蕴)、以及各种意识状态等,是可以最终令我们得到平静与安宁的。可是,我们通常并没有那么多时间在一个地方持续修习,因此,应找个方法,把静观运于于日常生活之中,以应付每天无法预测的突发事件。每天遇上什么都无法预知,事情的发生是由许多因缘(条件)所决定的,因为我们都活在一个受条件制约与无常的世界里。静观是我们的随身求生包(Emergency Kit),随时候命为我们服务。当我们要面对一个令我们愤怒的场合时,如果能仔细审察自心,就会发现一些难以接受的、与自己有关的事实,例如:我们是自私自利的、以自我为中心的、执着自我的、自以为是的、我对他错的、有成见的、有偏见的等等。说到底,我们并不喜欢自己。这发现虽然难于接受,却是十分有益的一个体验,而且,长远来说,这发现可令我们从根深柢固的心理与心灵的痛苦中解脱出来。

Mindfulness practice is the practice of one hundred percent honesty with ourselves. When we watch our own mind and body, we notice certain things that are unpleasant to realize. As we do not like them, we try to reject them. What are the things we do not like? We do not like to detach ourselves from loved ones or to live with unloved ones. We include not only people, places and material things into our likes and dislikes, but opinions, ideas, beliefs and decisions as well. We do not like what naturally happens to us. We do not like, for instance, growing old, becoming sick, becoming weak or showing our age, for we have a great desire to preserve our appearance. We do not like someone pointing out our faults, for we take great pride in ourselves. We do not like someone to be wiser than we are, for we are deluded about ourselves. These are but a few examples of our personal experience of greed, hatred and ignorance.

内观禅修是百分之一百忠于自己的练习。当我们观看自己的身心时,会发现某些东西是我们不喜欢知道的,既然不喜欢,我们就会抗拒它们。什么东西是我们不喜欢的呢?我们不喜欢与所爱的东西分离,我们不喜欢与所恶的东西在一起。这些东西不但包括人、地和物,也包括意见、观念、信仰与决定等。我们不喜欢会自然发生在我们身上的东西,例如:我们不喜欢变老、生病、衰弱或公开自己的年龄,因为我们想青春常驻;我们不喜欢接受别人的指责,因为我们相当自负;我们不喜欢别人比我们贤明,因为我们没有自知之明。以上所述,只不过是贪瞋痴的一些个人可以经验到的例子而已。

When greed, hatred and ignorance reveal themselves in our daily lives, we use our mindfulness to track them down and comprehend their roots. The root of each of these mental states in within ourselves. If we do not, for instance, have the root of hatred, nobody can make us angry, for it is the root of our anger that reacts to somebody's actions or words or behavior. If we are mindful, we will diligently use our wisdom to look into our own mind. If we do not have hatred in us we will not be concerned when someone points out our shortcomings. Rather, we will be thankful to the person who draws our attention to our faults. We have to be extremely wise and mindful to thank the person who explicates our faults so we will be able to tread the upward path toward improving ourselves. We all have blind spots. The other person is our mirror for us to see our faults with wisdom. We should consider the person who shows our shortcomings as one who excavates a hidden treasure in us that we were unaware of. It is by knowing the existence of our deficiencies that we can improve ourselves. Improving ourselves is the unswerving path to the perfection which is our goal in life. Only by overcoming weaknesses can we cultivate noble qualities hidden deep down in our subconscious mind. Before we try to surmount our defects, we should what they are.

当贪瞋痴在我们的日常生活中显露时,我们要用静观力去追捕它们和充分了解它们的根源。那些心态的根源都在我们里面,举例来说:如果我们没有瞋,是没有人可令我们愤怒的,就因为有瞋,才令我们对别人的说话、行动或表现生起反应。如果能及时觉知,就可运用智慧,坚持不懈地向内观察自心。如果我们内心没有瞋恨,便无需介意别人的挑剔或指责,反而要多谢那位提醒我们要留心过失的人。我们应十分明智地、小心地感谢那位揭露我们过失的人,因为他帮了我们踏上自我改善之路。我们大家都有盲点,那个人就像一面镜子,令我们可用智慧看到自己的过失。我们应视那位指出我们过失的人为恩人,因为他为我们揭开自己不知不觉的宝藏。只有了解自己的缺点与不足,才能着手改善自己,而改善自己是达致圆满的正道,那正是我们的人生目标。在我们试图超越自身的缺点前,应首先知道它们是什么,然后,通过克服那些缺点,才有可能开发潜在的高贵品德。

If we are sick, we must find out the cause of our sickness. Only then can we get treatment. If we pretend that we do not have sickness even though we are suffering, we will never get treatment. Similarly, if we think that we don't have these faults, we will never clear our spiritual path. If we are blind to our own flaws, we need someone to point them out to us. When they point out our faults, we should be grateful to them like the Venerable Sariputta, who said: "Even if a seven-year-old novice monk points out my mistakes, I will accept them with utmost respect for him." Ven. Sariputta was an Arahant who was one hundred percent mindful and had no fault in him. But since he did not have any pride, he was able to maintain this position. Although we are not Arahants, we should determine to emulate his example, for our goal in life also is to attain what he attained.

请如此地思维:如果我们有病,就应找出病因,只有如此,我们才能得到治疗。如果明知有病,我们仍伪称没有病,那是无法得到治疗的。同样地,如果我们认为自己没有这些过错,那是无法清除修行道路上的障碍的。如果我们对自己的缺点无知,便需要别人为我们一一指出来。当他们指出我们的缺点时,我们就应感谢他们,就像尊者舍利弗所说:「即使有七岁的小沙弥指出我的错误,我也会欣然接受,并对他十分尊敬。」尊者舍利弗已经是一位百分百具足静观力(正念)的人(暗指阿罗汉),他并无过失,也没有我慢,所以他能坚持这种做法。虽然我们不是阿罗汉,我们也应仿效他的做法,因为,我们的人生目标也是要达致阿罗汉所达致的成就。

Of course the person pointing out our mistakes himself may not be totally free from defects, but he can see our problems as we can see his faults, which he does not notice until we point them out to him.

当然,指出我们错误的人本身也非毫无缺点,可是,他看到我们的问题,就好像我们看到他的缺点一样。我们不当面向他指出,他同样是不会注意到自己的过失的。

Both pointing out shortcomings and responding to them should be done mindfully. If someone becomes unmindful in indicating faults and uses unkind and harsh language, he might do more harm than good to himself as well as to the person whose shortcomings he points out. One who speaks with resentment cannot be mindful and is unable to express himself clearly. One who feels hurt while listening to harsh language may lose his mindfulness and not hear what the other person is really saying. We should speak mindfully and listen mindfully to be benefitted by talking and listening. When we listen and talk mindfully, our minds are free from greed, selfishness, hatred and delusion.

指出他人的缺点与回应他人的指责时都应留心地去做,如果有人不留心地指出别人的缺点,用上不友善的粗言恶语,对于他和被他指出缺点的人来说,都是有害无益的。一个怀着恶意说话的人,是不能留心地与清楚地表达自己的;因听到粗言恶语而感到不快的人亦会分神,无法听到对方说话的真正内容。我们应留心地说话和留心地聆听,才可得到说话与聆听的好处。当我们留心地说话或聆听时,我们的心当下就可免受贪欲、自私、瞋恨与愚痴的影响了。

Our Goal

我们的目标

As meditators, we all must have a goal, for if we do not have a goal, we will simply be groping in the dark blindly following somebody's instructions on meditation. There must certainly be a goal for whatever we do consciously and willingly. It is not the Vipassana meditator's goal to become enlightened before other people or to have more power or to make more profit than others, for mindfulness meditators are not in competition with each other.

身为禅修者,我们都应有一个目标,因为,如果没有目标,并且跟着别人的禅修指示去做,我们只不过像瞎子摸象,在黑暗中摸索而已。无论我们乐意地或自觉地做什么,总应该有一个目标的。内观禅修者的目标,不是要比别人更快开悟、更有力量或得到更多利益,内观禅修者是不会为了静观力而互相竞争的。

Our goal is to reach the perfection of all the noble and wholesome qualities latent in our subconscious mind. This goal has five elements to it: Purification of mind, overcoming sorrow and lamentation, overcoming pain and grief, treading the right path leading to attainment of eternal peace, and attaining happiness by following that path. Keeping this fivefold goal in mind, we can advance with hope and confidence to reach the goal.

我们的目标,是要令潜在之高贵与良善品德都能达致完美。这目标有五个元素:清净自心、克服忧愁与哀伤、袪除苦楚与悲痛、踏上可导致究竟安宁(涅槃)之正道,以及跟随正道所得的快乐。我们若能谨记此五重目标,便可满怀希望与信心地前进了。

 

Practice

禅修的实践

Once you sit, do not change the position again until the end of the time you determined at the beginning. Suppose you change your original position because it is uncomfortable, and assume another position. What happens after a while is that the new position becomes uncomfortable. Then you want another and after a while, it too becomes uncomfortable. So you may go on shifting, moving, changing one position to another the whole time you are on your mediation cushion and you may not gain a deep and meaningful level of concentration. Therefore, do not change your original position, no matter how painful it is.

一旦坐定后,姿势就不可任意改变,直至预定的时间结束为止。假设你因为不舒服而改变姿势,不一会儿,新的姿势也会令你感到不舒服的,于是你又想再次改变,但是不久之后,你还是会不舒服的。于是,在整个禅修时段里,你都会不停地在坐垫上移动与改变姿势,那么,你是无法获得深刻而有意义的定力的。因此,你必须尽一切努力不改变原来的姿势,至于如何应付坐禅时生起的疼痛,我们会在第十章中讨论。

To avoid changing your position, determine at the beginning of meditation how long you are going to meditate. If you have never meditated before, sit motionless not longer than twenty minutes. As you repeat your practice, you can increase your sitting time. The length of sitting depends on how much time you have for sitting meditation practice and how long you can sit without excruciating pain.

欲避免改变坐姿,最好能在坐禅前预先决定你想坐多久。如果你是新手,开始时可用不超过二十分钟来尝试坐着不动,之后,你可逐渐增加坐禅时间。坐禅时间的长短,全取决于你有多少时间,以及你有多大的坐禅忍痛能力。

We should not have a time schedule to attain the goal, for our attainment depends on how we progress in our practice based on our understanding and development of our spiritual faculties. We must work diligently and mindfully towards the goal without setting any particular time schedule to reach it. When we are ready, we get there. All we have to do is to prepare ourselves for that attainment.

我们不必有一个达标的时间表,因为,我们的成就全取决于我们的禅修进展,而禅修的进展又依赖我们对五根(指信、精进、念、定、慧等五种助道因缘)的了解与发展。我们应努力地与谨慎地向目标推进,而无须设置任何特别的达标时间表。当我们准备妥当,就自然可以达标。我们所要做的,应该是为达标而好好地准备自己。

After sitting motionless, close your eyes. Our mind is analogous to a cup of muddy water. The longer you keep a cup of muddy water still, the more mud settles down and the water will be seen clearly. Similarly, if you keep quiet without moving you body, focusing your entire undivided attention on the subject of your meditation, your mind settles down and begins to experience the bliss of meditation.

坐定之后,就要闭上眼睛。我们的心有如一杯泥水,你令那杯泥水安置不动越久,就有较多的泥浆沉淀下来,而水也会越来越清澈。同样,如果你能保持默然不动,专心致志地留意着你的禅修对象,你的心就会安定下来,并开始体验到禅修之乐。

To prepare for this attainment, we should keep our mind in the present moment. The present moment is changing so fast that the casual observer does not seem to notice its existence at all. Every moment is a moment of events and no moment passes by without noticing events taking place in that moment. Therefore, the moment we try to pay bare attention to is the present moment. Our mind goes through a series of events like a series of pictures passing through a projector. Some of these pictures are coming from our past experiences and others are our imaginations of things that we plan to do in the future.

我们做达标的准备时,应保持自心于当下此刻,但当下瞬间飞逝,草率的观察者根本注意不到它的存在。每一刻都有事件发生,没有任何掠过的一刻是空白无事的。我们不可能在留意某一刻时,注意不到该刻内正发生的事件的。因此,我们要留意观察的时刻就是现在当下此刻。我们的心像经过投影机的影片一样,经常有一串串的影片经过,一些与过去的经历有关,一些与我们计划着将来想做的幻想有关。

The mind can never be focused without a mental object. Therefore we must give our mind an object which is readily available every present moment. What is present every moment is our breath. The mind does not have to make a great effort to find the breath, for every moment the breath is flowing in and out through our nostrils. As our practice of insight meditation is taking place every waking moment, our mind finds it very easy to focus itself on the breath, for it is more conspicuous and constant than any other object.

如果没有一个对象,心意是无法集中的。因此,我们要给心意一个对象,而那对象在任何时刻皆可轻易得到的。我们的呼吸就是这类对象之一,心无需费力即可找到它,因为气息在每一刻都会在鼻孔内流出流入。由于我们的内观禅实践都是在清醒的时刻进行,而呼吸又比其他对象较为明显和持续,因此,心意轻易地就能令自己集中到呼吸上来。

After sitting in the manner explained earlier and having shared your loving-kindness with everybody, take three deep breaths. After taking three deep breaths, breathe normally, letting your breath flow in and out freely, effortlessly and begin focusing your attention on the rims of your nostrils. Simply notice the feeling of breath going in and out. When one inhalation is complete and before exhaling begins, there is a brief pause. Notice it and notice the beginning of exhaling. When the exhalation is complete, there is another brief pause before inhaling begins. Notice this brief pause, too. This means that there are two brief pauses of breath--one at the end of inhaling, and the other at the end of exhaling. The two pauses occur in such a brief moment you may not be aware of their occurrence. But when you are mindful, you can notice them.

如上述般坐好后,与众生分享你的慈心,然后深呼吸三次,深呼吸三次之后,回复正常的呼吸,让气息自由地、毫不费力地流出流入,然后开始专心留意鼻孔末端边缘,简单地注意着气息进出时的感觉。在吸气结束与呼气开始之间会有一短暂停顿的,要注意此短暂停顿与呼气的开始,在此呼气结束与下一个吸气开始之间也会有一短暂停顿的,同样要注意这一短暂停顿。换言之,在一呼一吸间会有两个短暂停顿,一个在吸完之后,一个在呼完之后。这两个停顿极为短暂,你可能觉察不到,但是,如果留意,你是会知道的。

Do not verbalize or conceptualize anything. Simply notice the in-coming and out-going breath without saying, "I breathe in", or "I breathe out." When you focus your attention on the breath ignore any thought, memory, sound, smell, taste, etc., and focus your attention exclusively on the breath, nothing else.

不可概念化或以言语表述任何感受。只须简单地注意着气息的进出,不必同时说:「我正吸入。」或是:「我正呼出。」当你专心注意着呼吸时,不要理会任何思想、记忆、声音、香臭、味道等,只须一心一意地注意着呼吸即可。

At the beginning, both the inhalations and exhalations are short because the body and mind are not calm and relaxed. Notice the feeling of that short inhaling and short exhaling as they occur without saying "short inhaling" or "short exhaling". As you remain noticing the felling of short inhaling and short exhaling, your body and mind become relatively calm. Then your breath becomes long. Notice the feeling of that long breath as it is without saying "Long breath". Then notice the entire breathing process from the beginning to the end. Subsequently the breath becomes subtle, and the mind and body become calmer than before. Notice this calm and peaceful feeling of your breathing.

开始时,由于身心尚未安静与放松,吸气与呼气都很短暂,注意那短暂吸气与短暂呼气时的感受,不用说「短的入息」或「短的出息」。由于你持续地注意着短暂的吸气与短暂的呼气感受,你的身心会变得较为平静,跟着你的呼吸也会变得长些,要如实地注意那个长的呼吸感受,不用说「长的入息」或「长的出息」,然后,由头到尾地注意整个呼吸过程。之后,呼吸会变得较为微细,而身心亦会比前较为平静,注意你呼吸时这种平静与安宁的感受。

What To Do When the Mind Wanders Away?

当心意跑开时怎么办?

In spite of your concerted effort to keep the mind on your breathing, the mind may wander away. It may go to past experiences and suddenly you may find yourself remembering places you've visited, people you met, friends not seen for a long time, a book you read long ago, the taste of food you ate yesterday, and so on. As soon as you notice that you mind is no longer on your breath, mindfully bring it back to it and anchor it there. However, in a few moments you may be caught up again thinking how to pay your bills, to make a telephone call to you friend, write a letter to someone, do your laundry, buy your groceries, go to a party, plan your next vacation, and so forth. As soon as you notice that your mind is not on your subject, bring it back mindfully. Following are some suggestions to help you gain the concentration necessary for the practice of mindfulness.

不管你怎么努力把心意安住于呼吸之上,心意还是会跑开的。它会跑到过去的经验里,突然间你会发觉,自己回忆起以前去过的地方、遇见过的人、久未谋面的朋友、一本很久之前读过的书、昨天吃过的食物味道…… 等等。当你察觉时,你的心意已不在呼吸上了,要立即留心地把心带回来,重新固定在呼吸之上。然而,很快你又再分心,想着缴交账单的方法、打电话给朋友、写一封信给别人、清洗衣服、买杂货、参加舞会、计划下次假期活动……等等。一旦你发觉心不在焉,要立即留心地把它带回来。下面的一些建议,可帮你提高足够的定力来修习观禅。

1. Counting

(1) 数息

In a situation like this, counting may help. The purpose of counting is simply to focus the mind on the breath. Once you mind is focused on the breath, give up counting. This is a device for gaining concentration. There are numerous ways of counting. Any counting should be done mentally. Do not make any sound when you count. Following are some of the ways of counting.

像这样的情况,数息会有帮助。数息的目的是要把心意集中在气息之上,一旦心意集中在气息之上,就可停止数息,这是一种提升定力的技巧。数息有很多种,任何一种都是用心去数的,不可用口发声来数。以下是数息的一些方法:


a) While breathing in count "one, one, one, one..." until the lungs are full of fresh air. While breathing out count "two, two, two, two..." until the lungs are empty of fresh air. Then while breathing in again count "three, three, three, three..." until the lungs are full again and while breathing out count again "four, four, four, four..." until the lungs are empty of fresh air. Count up to ten and repeat as many times as necessary to keep the mind focused on the breath.

(a) 当吸气时,数「一、一、一、一……」,直至肺部吸满空气为止,当呼气时,数「二、二、二、二……」,直至肺部呼尽空气为止,跟着再吸气,数「三、三、三、三……」,直至肺部再吸满空气为止,然后呼气时数「四、四、四、四……」,直至肺部呼尽空气为止,如此地从一数至十,再不断地重复,直至心能集中在气息之上。

b) The second method of counting is counting rapidly up to ten. While counting "one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten" breathe in and again while counting "one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten" breathe out. This means in one inhaling you should count up to ten and in one exhaling you should count up to ten. Repeat this way of counting as many times as necessary to focus the mind on the breath.

(b) 第二种数息方法是快速地从一数至十。即一面数着「一、二、三、四、五、六、七、八、九、十」时,一面吸气,然后再一面数着「一、二、三、四、五、六、七、八、九、十」时,一面呼气。换言之,在一次吸气中你要数至十,在一次呼气中你也要数至十。如此地不断重复,直至心能集中在气息之上。

c) The third method of counting is to counting secession up to ten. At this time count "one, two, three, four, five" (only up to five) while inhaling and then count "one, two, three, four, five, six" (up to six) while exhaling. Again count "one, two, three, four fire, six seven" (only up to seven) while inhaling. Then count "one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight" while exhaling. Count up to nine while inhaling and count up to ten while exhaling. Repeat this way of counting as many times as necessary to focus the mind on the breath.

(c) 第三种数息方法是由一数至五,然后顺序地递增至十。开始时,一面吸气,一面数「一、二、三、四、五」(只数至五),然后一面呼气,一面数「一、二、三、四、五、六」(只数至六)。接着,再一面吸气,一面数「一、二、三、四、五、六、七」(只数至七),然后一面呼气,一面数「一、二、三、四、五、六、七、八」(只数至八)。接着,在吸气时数至九,在呼气时数至十。如此地不断重复,直至心能集中在气息之上。

d) The fourth method is to take a long breath. When the lungs are full, mentally count "one" and breath out completely until the lungs are empty of fresh air. Then count mentally "two". Take a long breath again and count "three" and breath completely out as before. When the lungs are empty of fresh air, count mentally "four". Count your breath in this manner up to ten. Then count backward from ten to one. Count again from one to ten and then ten to one.

(d) 第四种数息方法是在深长的吸气或呼气之后才数。当肺部吸满空气后,在心里数「一」,然后呼气,当肺部的空气呼尽了,在心里数「二」。接着再深吸气,至吸满时数「三」,然后呼气,至呼尽时用心数「四」。如此地呼吸,由一数到十,然后由十倒数至一,再由一数到十,又由十倒数至一。

e) The fifth method is to join inhaling and exhaling. When the lungs are empty of fresh air, count mentally "one". This time you should count both inhalation and exhalation as one. Again inhale, exhale, and mentally count "two". This way of counting should be done only up to five and repeated from five to one. Repeat this method until you breathing becomes refined and quiet.
Remember that you are not supposed to continue your counting all the time. As soon as your mind is locked at the nostrils-tip where the inhaling breath and exhaling breath touch and begin to feel that you breathing is so refined and quiet that you cannot notice inhalation and exhalation separately, you should give up counting. Counting is used only to train the mind to concentrate on one point.

(e) 第五种数息方法是把呼吸结合起来数。每次都在呼尽气时数。即是在一吸一呼之后才数「一」,再一吸一呼之后才数「二」,如此地只数到五,然后再由五倒数至一,如此地不断重复,直至你的气息变得微细与安静。请记住,你无需用全部的禅修时间去数息,一旦你的心被锁定在鼻孔末端与气息接触的地方,感到气息微细与安静,乃至分辨不出吸气或是呼气时,就要停止数息。数息只是用来训练心意集中在一个对象上而已。

2. Connecting

(2) 连接

After inhaling do not wait to notice the brief pause before exhaling but connect the inhaling and exhaling, so you can notice both inhaling and exhaling as one continuous breath.

吸满气后,不用等注意到短暂的停顿才呼气,而是把吸气与呼气连接起来,好让你在吸气与呼气时只感到一个连续的气息。


3. Fixing

(3) 固定

After joining inhaling and exhaling, fix your mind on the point where you feel you inhaling and exhaling breath touching. Inhale and exhale as on single breath moving in and out touching or rubbing the rims of your nostrils.

把吸气与呼气连接起来之后,就要把你的心固定在吸气与呼气时接触鼻孔末端的那个感觉点上,让吸气与呼气有如一个气息般进进出出,接触着或磨擦着你的鼻孔末端边缘。

4. Focus you mind like a carpenter

(4) 像木匠一样集中你的心

A carpenter draws a straight line on a board and that he wants to cut. Then he cuts the board with his handsaw along the straight line he drew. He does not look at the teeth of his saw as they move in and out of the board. Rather he focuses his entire attention on the line he drew so he can cut the board straight. Similarly keep your mind straight on the point where you feel the breath at the rims of your nostrils.

在锯木前,木匠一般都会在要锯的木板上划上一条直线,然后才用锯子沿着那条直线锯下去,他不会一面锯一面看着锯子上的锯齿,而是把注意力完全集中于他所划的线上[3],这样才能把木板切割得正直。同样地,要把自心一直保持在你感到气息与鼻孔末端边缘的接触点上。

5. Make you mind like a gate-keeper

(5) 令你的心像一个看门人

A gate-keeper does not take into account any detail of the people entering a house. All he does is notice people entering the house and leaving the house through the gate. Similarly, when you concentrate you should not take into account any detail of your experiences. Simply notice the feeling of your inhaling and exhaling breath as it goes in and out right at the rims of your nostrils.

看门人是不会重视进入屋子里的人的细节的,他只会注意经过屋子门口进入与走出的人们。同样地,当你集中时,不应重视经验上的任何细节,只须注意呼吸时气息进出鼻孔末端边缘的接触感受即可。

As you continue your practice you mind and body becomes so light that you may feel as if you are floating in the air or on water. You may even feel that your body is springing up into the sky. When the grossness of your in-and-out breathing has ceased, subtle in-and-out breathing arises. This very subtle breath is your objective focus of the mind. This is the sign of concentration. This first appearance of a sign-object will be replaced by more and more subtle sign-object. This subtlety of the sign can be compared to the sound of a bell. When a bell is struck with a big iron rod, you hear a gross sound at first. As the sound faces away, the sound becomes very subtle. Similarly the in-and-out breath appears at first as a gross sign. As you keep paying bare attention to it, this sign becomes very subtle. But the consciousness remains totally focused on the rims of the nostrils. Other meditation objects become clearer and clearer, as the sign develops. But the breath becomes subtler and subtler as the sign develops. Because of this subtlety, you may not notice the presence of your breath. Don't get disappointed thinking that you lost your breath or that nothing is happening to your meditation practice. Don't worry. Be mindful and determined to bring your feeling of breath back to the rims of your nostrils. This is the time you should practice more vigorously, balancing your energy, faith, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom.

当你继续练习时,你的身心会变得很轻盈,感到自己好像漂浮在空气之中或水面之上一样,你甚至感到身体向空中升起。当出入息的粗重感消失后,微细的出入息就会出现,这个微细的气息就是你心的专注对象,这是定境的征状,而这个最初的征状会被随后陆续出现的、更加微细的征状对象所替代。征状的微细性质,可用钟声来作比拟,当一个钟被一根粗铁杆敲击时,你会首先听到厚重的声音,随着声音渐渐消失,它会变得非常微细。同样地,出入息的初期是粗重的,当你继续单纯地注意着它时,这征状亦会越来越微细的。然而,心识仍然完全集中在鼻孔末端的边缘上【译者注:这是你的主要或基本禅修对象】,随着征状发展,其他禅修对象【译者注:这是你的次要禅修对象】也会变得越来越清楚,而气息亦会因而变得越来越微细的。由于这微细性(的不断增加),你可能察觉不到气息的存在,不要因此失望,以为你失去了气息、或以为禅修练习没有任何进展。别担心,要继续留意觉察与下定决心找回在鼻孔末端边缘的接触感受。这个时候,你要更加积极地精进修习,平衡你的信、精进、念(观、静观、留意觉察)、定、慧等五根或五力。


Farmer's simile

农夫的譬喻

Suppose there is a farmer who uses buffaloes for plowing his rice field. As he is tired in the middle of the day, he unfastens his buffaloes and takes a rest under the cool shade of a tree. When he wakes up, he does not find his animals. He does not worry, but simply walks to the water place where all the animals gather for drinking in the hot mid-day and he finds his buffaloes there. Without any problem he brings them back and ties them to the yoke again and starts plowing his field.

假设有一位农夫,他以水牛来帮助他耕田。每当工作到中午时分,他感到有些疲倦时,他会解开耕牛的系绳,自己就在树荫下休息。当他醒来时,发觉耕牛不见了,他一点也不担心,只迳自走到所有动物在炎热的正午会聚在一起喝水的地方,在那里就可找到他的耕牛,轻易地把水牛带回,重新套上牛轭,继续耕作他的农田。

Similarly as you continue this exercise, your breath becomes so subtle and refined that you might not be able to notice the feeling of breath at all. When this happens, do not worry. It has not disappeared. It is still where it was before-right at the nostril-tips. Take a few quick breaths and you will notice the feeling of breathing again. Continue to pay bare attention to the feeling of the touch of breath at the rims of your nostrils.

同样地,当你继续此练习时,你的气息会变得很微细与精炼,令你好像全然觉察不到它。当这样的事发生时,不用担心,气息并没有消失,它仍然在鼻孔末端这个老地方。只要你快速地呼吸数下,就会再次注意到气息的感觉了。继续单纯地注意着呼吸时气息在你鼻孔末端边缘上的接触感受。

(禅修进一步发展时的征状)

As you keep your mind focused on the rims of your nostrils, you will be able to notice the sign of the development of meditation. You will feel the pleasant sensation of sign. Different meditators feel this differently. It will be like a star, or a peg made of heartwood, or a long string, or a wreath of flowers, or a puff of smoke, or a cob-web, or a film of cloud, or a lotus flower, or the disc of the moon or the disc of the sun.

当你继续集中心意于鼻孔末端边缘上时,就能注意到禅修进一步发展时的征状,其中之一是:你会有一种愉悦的感觉。对此体验,不同的禅修者都会有所不同,它可能像一颗星星、一颗圆形宝石、一粒珍珠、一粒棉花种子、一根木钉、一条长绳、一个花环、一阵轻烟、一个蜘蛛网、一片云雾、或是一朵莲花、或像月轮、或像日轮等。

Earlier in your practice you had inhaling and exhaling as objects of meditation. Now you have the sign as the third object of meditation. When you focus your mind on this third object, your mind reaches a stage of concentration sufficient for your practice of insight meditation. This sign is strongly present at the rims of the nostrils. Master it and gain full control of it so that whenever you want, it should be available. Unite the mind with this sign which is available in the present moment and let the mind flow with every succeeding moment. As you pay bare attention to it, you will see the sign itself is changing every moment. Keep your mind with the changing moments. Also notice that your mind can be concentrated only on the present moment. This unity of the mind with the present moment is called momentary concentration. As moments are incessantly passing away one after another, the mind keeps pace with them. Changing with them, appearing and disappearing with them without clinging to any of them. If we try to stop the mind at one moment, we end up in frustration because the mind cannot be held fast. It must keep up with what is happening in the new moment. As the present moment can be found any moment, every waking moment can be made a concentrated moment.

你之前的修习是以入息与出息为禅修对象,现在你是以上述的征状为你的第三种禅修对象。当你集中心意在这第三种对象时,你的心已达到相当的定力水平,足以用作内观禅的练习了。这征状明显地存在于你的鼻孔末端边缘,你要精通、熟练和完全地掌控它,以便在需要时,能随时得心应手,把心意与当下可得的征状合而为一,并且让心意随着每一个相续的瞬间(剎那)流动。当你单纯地注意着它时,你会发觉那征状本身也是不断在转变。让你的心与转变着的每一刻保持同步,同时要察觉到:心只可集中于当下此刻。心与当刻这样子的结合被称为「剎那定/瞬间定」(Momentary Concentration),随着每一刻的不停流走,心要与它们同步,与它们一起转变,与它们一起出现和消失,不执取任何一刻【译者注:指不断改变心的注意对象为刚到达的当刻】。如果我们试图让心在某一刻停下来,只会招致挫败,因为心是无法被握紧的,它一定会保持与新一刻发生着的事情同步。既然当刻可以在任何一刻找到,醒着的每一刻皆可成为有定力的一刻。

To unite the mind with the present moment, we must find something happening in that moment. However, you cannot focus your mind on every changing moment without a certain degree of concentration to keep pace with the moment. Once you gain this degree of concentration, you can use it for focusing your attention on anything you experience--the rising and falling of your abdomen, the rising and falling of the chest area, the rising and falling of any feeling, or the rising and falling of your breath or thoughts and so on.

为了将心与当刻结合,我们必须在当刻找到一些正在发生的事情,可是,没有一定程度的定力与当刻同步,你是无法集中心意于每一个变动着的当刻的。一旦达致那种定力程度,你便可运用它来集中注意任何体验── 腹部的起落、胸部的起伏、感受的生起与消失、气息的升降、或思想起伏等。

To make any progress in insight meditation you need this kind of momentary concentration. That is all you need for the insight meditation practice because everything in your experience lives only for one moment. When you focus this concentrated state of mind on the changes taking place in your mind and body, you will notice that your breath is the physical part and the feeling of breath, consciousness of the feeling and the consciousness of the sign are the mental parts. As you notice them you can notice that they are changing all the time. You may have various types of sensations, other than the feeling of breathing, taking place in your body. Watch them all over your body. Don't try to create any feeling which is not naturally present in any part of your body. When thought arises notice it, too. All you should notice in all these occurrences is the impermanent, unsatisfactory and selfless nature of all your experiences whether mental or physical.

欲想内观禅修有所进展,你必须有此「剎那定或瞬间定」。内观禅所需要的(定力),就是如此而已,因为,你的每一个体验都只能活一个片刻(剎那)。当你把这种有「剎那定」的心意集中于身心的转变时,你会发觉,气息属物质部分,而气息的感受、对此感受的意识与对于征状的意识等等皆属精神部分。在你注意着它们的时候,你也会察觉到它们都在一直转变。除了呼吸的感受外,你可能有各种各样的不同感觉在你身体内出现,遍身的感觉都要观察,不要试图捏造任何不是自然呈现在你身上的感觉,但要注意在体内生起的任何感觉。当思想生起时,也要马上注意到它。在这些事件的出现中,你所应注意的是:你所有有关物质的、或精神上的体验,皆有无常、苦(不能令人满意)和无我【译者注:不可控制、非独一无二、无实自性】的本性。

As your mindfulness develops, your resentment for the change, your dislike for the unpleasant experiences, your greet for the pleasant experiences and the notion of self hood will be replaced by the deeper insight of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and selflessness. This knowledge of reality in your experience helps you to foster a more calm, peaceful and mature attitude towards your life. You will see what you thought in the past to be permanent is changing with such an inconceivable rapidity that even your mind cannot keep up with these changes. Somehow you will be able to notice many of the changes. You will see the subtlety of impermanence and the subtlety of selflessness. This insight will show you the way to peace, happiness and give you the wisdom to handle your daily problems in life.

随着静观或留意觉察力(Mindfulness)的发展,你对改变的怨恨、对不愉快经历或感受的嫌恶、对愉快经历或感受的贪恋,以及自我的概念等,将会被无常、苦与无我等较深层的觉知所取代。你体会到的这种现实智慧,会帮你培养到一种较为平静、安宁、以及成熟的对自己生命的态度。你会明白到,以前认为永恒不变的东西实在变化神速,甚至连心也无法跟得上这些改变。无论以何方式,你总会察觉到很多改变的,你会明白无常与无我的微妙之处,这洞悉将为你指出导致安宁与快乐之道,也会带给你处理日常生活问题的智慧。

When the mind is united with the breath flowing all the time, we will naturally be able to focus the mind on the present moment. We can notice the feeling arising from contact of breath with the rim of our nostrils. As the earth element of the air that we breathe in and out touches the earth element of our nostrils, the mind feels the flow of air in and out. The warm feeling arises at the nostrils or any other part of the body from the contact of the heat element generated by the breathing process. The feeling of impermanence of breath arises when the earth element of flowing breath touches the nostrils. Although the water element is present in the breath, the mind cannot feel it.

当心与气息流动能一直保持结合时,我们自然能集中心意于每一个当刻,我们能注意到气息与鼻孔末端边缘接触时生起的感受。当呼吸时空气的「地大(Earth Element)」[4]接触到鼻孔的地大时,心就会感到空气的气流在进进出出。当呼吸时空气的「火大( Heat Element)」接触到鼻孔或身体的其他部分时,温暖的感受就会生起。当呼吸时空气的地大接触到鼻孔时,呼吸的无常感受就会生起。虽然「水大(Water element)」存在于气息之中,但心无法感受到它。

Also we feel the expansion and contraction of our lungs, abdomen and low abdomen, as the fresh air is pumped in and out of the lungs. The expansion and contraction of the abdomen, lower abdomen and chest are parts of the universal rhythm. Everything in the universe has the same rhythm of expansion and contraction just like our breath and body. All of them are rising and falling. However, our primary concern is the rising and falling phenomena of the breath and minute parts of our minds and bodies.

此外,随着呼吸时的新鲜空气进出肺部,我们会感到胸部、腹部与小腹的膨胀与收缩,胸部、腹部与小腹的膨胀与收缩是整个宇宙律动的几个组成部分,宇宙间的任何事物均有相同的膨胀与收缩律动,就和我们的气息与身体一样,它们全部都会生起和消失。不过,我们关注的重点是:气息与我们身心微细部分的生起与消失现象。

Along with the inhaling breath, we experience a small degree of calmness. This little degree of tension-free calmness turns into tension if we don't breathe out in a few moments. As we breathe out this tension is released. After breathing out, we experience discomfort if we wait too long before having fresh brought in again. This means that every time our lings are full we must breathe out and every time our lungs are empty we must breathe in. As we breathe in, we experience a small degree of calmness, and as we breathe out, we experience a small degree of calmness. We desire calmness and relief of tension and do not like the tension and feeling resulting from the lack of breath. We wish that the calmness would stay longer and the tension disappear more quickly that it normally does. But neither will the tension go away as fast as we wish not the calmness stay as long as we wish. And again we get agitated or irritated, for we desire the calmness to return and stay longer and the tension to go away quickly and not to return again. Here we see how even a small degree of desire for permanency in an impermanent situation causes pain or unhappiness. Since there is no self-entity to control this situation, we will become more disappointed.

吸气的同时,我们会感到少许平静,若未能在片刻间呼气,这少许平静就会转变为紧张(压力)。随着呼气,这紧张又会得到舒缓。呼气之后,如果仍然停着不吸进新鲜空气,我们又会感到不安。这意味着:每次肺部吸满空气后就要呼气,每次肺部呼尽空气后就要吸气。当我们吸气时,就会感到少许平静,当我们呼气时,也会感到少许平静的。我们渴望平静与舒缓紧张,不喜欢紧张与呼吸困难的感受。我们希望平静能停留久一点,紧张能早一点消失。但往往事与愿违,紧张未能如我们所希望的那么快离开,平静也未能如我们所希望般停留得那么久。于是,我们再次激动与生气,因为我们渴望回到平静与希望它能停留久一点,并希望紧张能赶快消失,永远不要再回来。在这里,我们可以看到:在这种无常的情况下,就算是少许的渴望永恒(常),也会产生苦痛与苦恼的。由于根本没有一个自我实体去操控这种情况,我们将会变得更为失望。

However, if we watch our breathing without desiring calmness and without resenting tension arising from the breathing in and out, but experience only the impermanence, the unsatisfactoriness and selflessness of our breath, our mind becomes peaceful and calm.

不过,如果我们观察呼吸时,没有渴望平静,也没有憎恶呼吸时生起的紧张,而是只体验着呼吸时的无常、苦与无我,我们的心就会变得平静与安宁。

Also, the mind does not stay all the time with the feeling of breath. It goes to sounds, memories, emotions, perceptions, consciousness and mental formations as well. When we experience these states, we should forget about the feeling of breath and immediately focus our attention on these states--one at a time, not all of them at one time. As they fade away, we let our mind return to the breath which is the home base the mind can return to from quick or long journey to various states of mind and body. We must remember that all these mental journeys are made within the mind itself.

心是不会由始至终与呼吸在一起的,它有时也会跑去留意声音、记忆、情绪、知觉、意识与心行(Mental Formations)。当我们经历到这些状态时,应暂时停止感受呼吸,马上将注意力集中于这些状态上── 一次一个,不是同时一齐做。当它们消退时,再让心回到呼吸上来,那是心的基地,无论心往身心的任何状态旅游多久,它总会返回这个(呼吸)基地的。我们必须记住,所有这些心灵之旅都是在自己的心中进行的。

Every time the mind returns to the breath, it comes back with a deeper insight into impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and selflessness. The mind becomes more insightful from the impartial and unbiased watching of these occurrences. The mind gains insight into the fact that this body, these feelings, various states of consciousness and numerous mental formations are to be used only for the purpose of gaining deeper insight into the reality of this mind/body complex.

每次心意返回呼吸上时,它都会带着对无常、苦与无我更深入的洞悉回来的。通过对这些事情之不偏不倚的观察,心会变得更为有洞察力,它了解到一个事实:这个身体、这些感受、各种各样的意识与无数的心行,只不过是用来获得对身心综合体实相之较深入的洞悉而已。

【注释】

[1] 心行(Mental Formations):佛教多简称为「行」,泛指内心的作用、状态或思想情绪等活动。有时候特指有意图的思维活动。

[2] 五蕴:佛教术语。亦作五取蕴,五阴或五取阴。英译为(Aggregates of form, feeling,perceptions, mental formations and consciousness)。指构成众生身心的五堆具有不同功能的聚合物,分别为色蕴(物质性的身体)、受蕴(感受)、想蕴(知觉)、行蕴(心理作用、状态与活动。即「心行」)与识蕴(意识作用)。色蕴相当于我们所称的身体,其他四蕴则相当于我们所称的心理或精神。佛教所称的「名色」相当于「身心」,「名」指「心」,「色」指「身」。

[3] 把注意力完全集中于他所划的线上:意思是,把注意力完全集中于他所划的线与锯齿接触之点上。

[4] 地大(Earth Element):四大种之一。佛教之元素说,认为世间一切有形物质(色法)皆由地大、水大、火大、风大等四大要素(四大种)所构成。地大以坚硬为性,水大以潮湿为性,火大以温暖为性,风大以流动为性。例如:人体的毛发爪牙、皮骨筋肉等是坚硬性的地大;唾涕脓血、痰泪便利等是潮湿性的水大;温度暖气是温暖性的火大;一呼一吸是流动性的风大。


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