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6-TheWiseMan (Dh.76-89) 六、智者品
 
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6-TheWiseMan (Dh.76-89)

76. Should one find a man who points out faults and who reproves, let him follow such a wise and sagacious person as one would a guide to hidden treasure. It is always better, and never worse, tocultivate such an association. 77. Let him admonish, instruct and shield one from wrong; he, indeed, is dear tothe goodand detestable tothe evil. 78. Do not associate with evil companions; do not seek the fellowship of the vile. Associate with good friends; seek the fellowship ofnoble men. 79. He who drinks deep the Dhamma lives happily with a tranquil mind. The wise man ever delights in the Dhamma made known by the Noble One (theBuddha). 80. Irrigators regulate the waters; fletchers straighten the arrow shaft; carpentersshape thewood; the wise controlthemselves. 远离: DhA: k kkkka aaaayav yavyavyavyavi iiiiv vvvve eeeek kkkko ooooti kayassa ekibhavo. C CCCCi iiiit ttttt ttttav avavavavi iiiiv vvvve eeeek kkkko ooooti attha samapattiyo. U UUUUp ppppad adadadadh hhhhi iiiiv vvvvi iiiiv vvvve eeeek kkkko ooooti nibbanam. (身的远离:身的成为孤独。 心的远离:八等至(八定)。存留的远离:涅槃。)

81. Just as a solid rock is not shaken by the storm, even so the wise are notaffected by praise or blame. reprove︰v.责备,指责。 sagacious︰a.睿智的。 admonish︰v.训诫。 detestable︰讨厌的。Irrigator︰灌溉者。

〈六、智者品〉

76若见彼智者──能指示过失,并能谴责者,当与彼为友; 犹如知识者,能指示宝藏。与彼智人友,定善而无恶。1

77训诫与教示,阻他人过恶。善人爱此人,但为恶人憎2。

78莫与恶友交,莫友卑鄙者。应与善友交,应友高尚士3。

79得饮法水者,心清而安乐4。智者常喜悦,圣者所说法。5

1一位老婆罗门罗陀(Radha)出家后,很守规矩,很快就证得阿拉汉果。

2善人敬爱能训诫与教示的人,恶人则憎恶此人。比丘阿湿具、富那婆修 (Assaji-Punabbasukabhikkhu)及弟子住在迦罗赖精舍(Kitagiri)时,为了私 利,种果树,也犯一些小戒,使精舍吵闹不停,妨碍其他比丘的修持。 佛陀派遣舍利弗、目犍连尊者去做劝告。

3高尚士:purisuttama,最胜人、上人、圣人。本偈为世尊劝导车匿长老 的话。车匿长老是傲慢的释迦族人,他在世尊灭度后才证到阿拉汉果。

4安乐:卧乐。DhA:S SSSSu uuuuk kkkkh hhhha aaaam mmmms sssse eeeet ttttN iiiitidesanamattamevetam, catuhipi iriyapathehi sukham viharatiti attho.(卧乐:这是已沈浸在教说,他以四威仪(行住坐卧) 的状态住乐之义。)

5摩诃劫宾那(Mahakappinatthera)曾当国王,第一次闻佛说法,就证得阿罗 汉果,出家为比丘。之后,不分昼夜,常自言自语︰“ahosukham aho sukhan”ti (快乐得不得了!快乐得不得了!)诸比丘误以为他想起以前当 王的快乐时光,而向佛陀报告,佛陀说出此偈。

80灌溉者引水,箭匠之矫箭,木匠之绳木,智者自调御。 1

81犹如坚固巖,不为风所摇,毁谤与赞誉,智者不为动。

82. On hearing the Teachings, the wise become perfectly purified, like a lake deep, clear and still. 83. The good renounce (attachment for) everything; the virtuous do not prattle with a yearning for pleasures. The wise show no elation or depression when touched by happiness or sorrow. 84. He is indeed virtuous, wise and righteous, who neither for their own sake nor for the sake of another (does any wrong), who does not crave for sons, wealth or kingdom, and does not desire success by unjust means. 85. Few among men are those who cross to the farther shore. The rest, the bulk ofmen, only runup and down the hither bank. 86. But those who act according to the perfectly taught Dhamma will cross the realm ofDeath, so difficult tocross. 87-88. Abandoning the dark way, let the wise man cultivate the bright path. Having gone from home to homelessness, let him

1此偈为班迪达沙马内拉 (Panditasamanera)的故事,他思惟︰如果无心的水 可以任人引至任何地方;无心且弯曲的竹子可以抚直;无心的木材也可 以做成有用的东西。那幺,拥有心识的我,为什幺无法控制我的内心, 修行清净止观呢?而在第八天证得阿拉汉果。

yearn for that delight in detachment, so difficult to enjoy. Giving up sensual pleasures, with no attachment, let the wise man cleanse himself ofdefilements ofthemind.

prattle︰v.闲聊;n.无聊话。hither︰adv.到这里,向这里。

82亦如一深池,清明而澄净,智者闻法已,如是心清净。

83善人离诸欲1,不论诸欲事。苦乐所不动,智者无喜.忧。2

84不因自因他,智者作诸恶,不求子.求财、及谋国作恶。 不欲以非法,求自己繁荣。彼实具戒行,智慧正法者。

〈85~ 86〉 85于此人群中,达彼岸者少。其余诸人等,徘徊于此岸3。 86善能说法者,及依正法行,彼能达彼岸,度难度魔境4。

1善人离诸欲:Sabbattha ve sappurisacajanti,真善人在一切处放出(欲)。 DhA:s ssssab ababababb bbbbat atatatatt tttth hhhha aaaati pabcakkhandhadibhedesu sabbadhammesu.(在一切处: 在五蕴等的诸项目、在一切的诸法。 )放出︰ DhA: C CCCCaj ajajajajan anananant ttttN iiiiti arahattamaggabanena apakaddhanta chandaragam vijahanti.(放出:诸正在 牵引离开者,以阿拉汉道智,舍离意愿的染。)

2佛陀受某婆罗门的邀请,到鞞兰若(Verabja)雨安居,但是那位婆罗门后 来就忘光了,那一次雨安居,佛陀及诸比丘每天只吃少许的马麦维生。

3彼岸:涅槃。此岸:生死。DhA:P PPPPa aaaar rrrrag agagagaga aaaam mmmmi iiiin nnnno ooooti nibbanaparagamino.(到 彼岸:去到涅槃的彼岸。)

4魔境:maccudheyyam,死天的领域,指生死轮回。DhA:M MMMMac acacacacc ccccu uuuud ddddh hhhhe eeeeyy yyyyyyyyan ananananti kilesamarasavkhatassa maccussa nivasatthanabhutam tebhumikavattam. (死 天的领域:已显露污染的魔罗的、死天的已变成住的地方,三地的轮转。)

〈87~ 89〉 87应舍弃黑法,智者修白法1,从家来无家2,喜独处不易3。 88当求是法乐,舍欲无所有4,智者须清净,自心诸垢秽。

1黑法:恶业;白法:善业。 2从家来无家:从在家人成为出家人 (无家)。 3喜独处不易:指喜爱独处 .远离,为凡夫不易享受的。 4舍欲无所有:空掉所有欲望,即涅槃。

89. Those whose minds have reached full excellence in the factors of enlightenment, who, having renounced acquisitiveness, rejoice in not clinging to things --rid of cankers, glowing with wisdom, they have attained Nibbana in this very life.

89彼于诸觉支1,正心而修习。远离诸固执,乐舍诸爱着, 漏尽2而光耀,此世证涅槃。

1 觉支:sambodhiyavga,指七觉支,一、念觉支,念念明白。二、择法觉支,分别善恶,弃绝贪染之法,选择趋解脱之法。三、精进觉支,一心于一境而努力不懈修善.断恶,求解脱。四、喜觉支,得正法或禅定而喜悦。五、轻安觉支,指身.心轻快、安稳,不沉重。六、定觉支,得禅定,心不散乱。七、舍觉支,心无偏颇,不执着而保持平衡、中立。

2 漏尽:khinasava,灭尽诸漏(贪.瞋.痴的烦恼)。

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