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23 -TheElephant(Dh.320-333) 二十三、象品
 
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23 -TheElephant(Dh.320-333)

320. As an elephant in the battlefield withstands arrows shot from bows all around, even so shall I endure abuse. There are many, indeed, who lack virtue. 321. A tamed elephant is led into a crowd, and the king mounts a tamed elephant. Best among men is the subdued one who endures abuse. 322. Excellent are well-trained mules, thoroughbred Sindhu horses and noble tusker elephants. But better still is the man who has subdued himself.

323. Not by these mounts, however, would one go to the Untrodden Land (Nibbana), as one who is self-tamed goes by his owntamed and well-controlled mind. uphold︰v.维持,高举。 tusker︰n.有长牙的象。

〈二十三、象品〉

〈320~ 322〉 320如象在战阵,堪忍弓箭射,我忍谤亦尔。世多破戒者。 321调御象可赴集会,调御象可为王乘。若能堪忍于谤言,人中最胜调御者。 322调御之骡为优良,信度骏马为优良2,

2信度骏马为优良︰在信度河(Sindhu辛头河﹑印度河)地方出产好马。 DhA:S SSSSi iiiin nnnnd ddddh hhhhav avavavava aaaati sindhavaratthejata assa.(诸辛头马:已被生在辛头国的诸

憍罗1大象亦优良,自调御者更优良。2

323实非彼等车乘,得达难到境地3,若人善自调御, 由于调御得达。

324. Musty during rut, the tusker named Dhanapalaka is uncontrollable. Held in captivity, the tusker does not touch a morsel, but only longingly calls to mind theelephant forest. 325. When a man is sluggish and gluttonous, sleeping and rolling around in bed like a fat domestic pig—that sluggard undergoes rebirthagain and again. 326.Formerly this mind wandered about as it liked, where it wished, according to its pleasure, but now I shall thoroughly master it with wisdom, as a mahout controls with his ankus an elephant in rut.

327. Delight in heedfulness! Guard well your thoughts! Draw yourself out of this bog of evil, even as an elephant draws himself out ofthe mud. 328. If for company you find a wise and prudent friend who leads 马。 )

1 憍罗(Kunjara)︰一头象之名。

2摩酰提利 (Magandiya)是优填王的三个后妃之一,当她知道佛陀来到憍赏 弥之后,派恶徒加以毁谤,阿难尊者建议佛陀到别的地方去,佛陀说到 别的地方也可能受人毁谤。

3 难到境地:agatam disam,指涅槃。

a good life, you should, overcoming all impediments, and keep his company joyously and mindfully.

329. If for company you cannot find a wise and prudent friend who leads a good life, then, like a king who leaves behind a conquered kingdom, or a lone elephant in the elephant forest, you should go your own wayalone. 330. Better it is to live alone, there is no fellowship with a fool. Live alone and do no evil; be carefree like an elephant in the elephant forest. gluttonous︰a.贪吃的,饕餮的。 mahout︰n.象夫,管象的人。

324如象名 ‘财护 ’,泌液 1暴难制,系缚 .不入食,惟念于象林。 2

325乐睡又贪食,转侧唯长眠,如猪食无厌,愚者数入胎3。

4

1泌液︰katukapabhedano,分泌强烈的 (体味 )。象在发欲期,分泌体味 (臭味 )。

2舍卫城中,有一位年老的婆罗门,他有八十万财富,他分四十万给四个 结婚的儿子。后来,他的夫人去世了,他的儿子们劝他,把剩下的一半 财产也全部分给他们,此后这老人分文不值。因为儿子媳妇不孝,老人 从此流落街头,拿着一钵一杖,前去找佛陀,佛陀就教他在大型聚会时, 朗诵偈语 (S.7.14./I,176.)︰「我生子欢喜,我望子成就;他们与妻谋,赶 我如赶猪;孽子看我衰,叫我爸 .阿爸;子如夜叉形,舍弃我而去;如无 用老马,食物被拿走;长老乃子父,他家行乞食;若比不孝子,我的拐 杖好;可赶走凶牛,也可赶凶狗;暗中作前导,涉深水作基;依拐杖威 力,跌倒又爬起。」佛陀说,人若妥善照顾父母,可以得到功德。佛陀 也讲大象财护照顾父母的故事,财护被捕后,天天思念森林里的父母。

3数入胎:指生死轮回。贪睡又贪食则更趋向于三恶道 (畜生、饿鬼、地狱)。

4这是憍萨罗国波斯匿王食量过多的故事。故事与第 204偈同。

120

326我此过去心──任意随所欲,随爱好游行。我今悉调伏, 如象师持,制御泌液象。

327当乐不放逸,善护于自心。自救出难处,如象出泥坑。1

〈328~ 330〉 328若得同行伴──善行富智虑,能服诸艰困,欣然共彼行。 329若无同行伴──善行富智虑,应如王弃国,如象独行林。 330宁一人独行,不与愚为友。独行离欲恶,如象独游林。2

331. Good are friends when need arises; good is contentment with just what one has; good is merit when life is at an end, and goodis the abandoning ofall suffering (through Arahatship).

332. In this world, good it is to serve his mother, good it is to serve his father, good it is to serve the monks, and good it is to serve the holy men.

333. Good is virtue until life’s end; good is faith that is steadfast; good is the acquisition ofwisdom; and good is theavoidance of evil.

〈331~ 333〉 331应时得友乐,适时满足乐,命终善业乐,离一切苦乐。 332世中敬母乐,敬父亲亦乐。世敬沙门乐,敬圣人1亦乐。 333至老持戒乐,正信成就乐,获得智慧乐,不作诸恶乐。2

1憍萨罗国王的一头大象波梨耶 (Paveyyaka)老了的时候,某次陷入泥沼, 国王找驯象师来帮忙,驯象师要人奏战鼓,波梨耶闻声大振,脱离困境。

2憍赏弥比丘,因判定有罪、无罪意见不同而起诤论。故事与第 6偈同。


 


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