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概念认识的产生 The Birth of Conceptual Knowledge
 
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The Birth of Conceptual Knowledge

概念认识的产生

Failure to note the object with mindfulness as it enters the mind door at the first moment of mind-consciousness, prompts the arising of the second thought process. At this stage conceptual knowledge (paññatti) regarding the shape or form of the visible object begins to emerge, and it becomes firmly established at the third thought process. The subject is now able to distinguish the visible object as male or female. This clear cognition relates to both form and name, so concepts of name and form are conceived. This concept comes naturally in rapid succession during the second and third thought processes, but it is a concept gained through ignorance (avijjā), which conceals the true nature of the object. The commentaries say that ignorance has the tendency to hide. The basic exercise in mindfulness exhorts a meditator to observe and note every time he or she comes face to face with the realities, before ignorance creates the concept. At first, however, the meditator will find it difficult to apprehend the reality because mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom are not yet strong enough. When these qualities become firmly established, the meditator will be able to realise the true nature of things even at the lapse of the first thought process of eye-consciousness. When the meditator has attained knowledge of dissolution (bhanga-ñāna) and knowledge of equanimity with regard to formations (sankhārupekkhā-ñāna), he or she will find that it is not imperative for the stream of mind-consciousness to flow up to impulsion, and that after two or three moments of determining, he or she can realise insight relating to the sixfold equanimity towards all the senses of seeing, hearing, etc. This has been explained in the Commentary on the Mūlapannāsa; for more details please refer to my discourse on insight practice.

在对象进入意门的时候,如果无法在第一个意识心路过程正念地注意到它(注1),就促成了第二个意识心路过程生起。在这个阶段,关于视觉对象的形状或外形的概念认识开始形成,然后在第三个(意门)心路过程时它就稳固地建立起来。此时观察者有能力区分视觉对象是男性还是女性。这种清楚的认识涉及形状和名称两者,所以名称和形状的概念被构想出来。这概念在第二个和第三个(意门)心程过程期间快速不断自然地生起,但它是一种通过无明(avijjā)得到的概念,它会覆蔽对象的真实本质。注释书说到无明有覆蔽的倾向。正念练习的基本要求是禅修者要观察和注意与究竟法每一次面对面的接触。然而开始时禅修者会发现,了知究竟法是困难的事情,因为念、定、慧还没有足够强大。这些品质稳固地建立起来后,禅修者将有能力甚至在第一个眼识心路过程的流逝中就能了知事物的真实本质。禅修者达到坏灭智(bhanga-ñāna)和行舍智(sankhārupekkhā-ñāna)后,他们将会发现意识的流并不是强制性要流到速行的,在两个或三个刹那的确定心后,他们就证入一种能够用六份的中舍心朝向看、听等所有感知的观智(chaagaupekkhā vipassanā ñaa,六支舍观智)。这些内容在《(中部)根本五十经》(Mūlapannāsa)的注释中有解释;需要更多细节的话,请参考我关于内观练习的讲义。

(译注1:旧版英文的意思很明确,first vīthi of mind-consciousness,是指“第一个意识心路”,而不是修订版的“意识的第一刹那或瞬间”。)


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