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佛陀的启示 第五章 第四圣谛:道谛 Chapter V. The Fourth Noble Truth - Magga: The Path
 
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第五章  第四圣谛:道谛

Chapter V. The Fourth Noble Truth

Magga: The Path

The Fourth Noble Truth is that of the Way leading to the Cessation of Dukkha (Dukkhanirodhagāminipatipadā-ariyasacca). This is known as the 'Middle Path' (Majjhimā Patipapā), because it avoids two extremes: one extreme being the search for happiness through the pleasures of the senses, which is 'low, common, unprofitable and the way of the ordinary people'; the other being the search for happiness through self-mortification in different forms of asceticism, which is 'painful, unworthy and unprofitable'. Having himself first tried these two extremes, and having found them to be useless, the Buddha discovered through personal experience the Middle Path 'which gives vision and knowledge, which leads to Calm, Insight, Enlightenment, Nirvāna'. This Middle Path is generally referred to as the Noble Eightfold Path (Ariya-Atthangika-Magga), because it is composed of eight categories or divisions: namely,
 
第四圣谛就是导致苦之止息的途径——道。这道叫做中道,因为它是避免两个极端的。一个极端就是经由感官的享受去追寻快乐,是‘低级、平庸、无益的凡夫之道’。另一个极端是经由各种自虐的苦行以寻求快乐,这是‘痛苦、无价质而无益的’。佛自己都曾尝试过这两种极端,深知其无有实益,才由亲身的证验,发现了‘能够产生知、见,导致宁静、内证、正觉、涅槃’的中道。这正道一般都称之为八正道,因为它是由八个部份所组成。这八个部份就是:
 
一、正见——正实的知见。
Right Understanding (Sammā ditthi)
二、正思——正确的思维。
Right Thought (Sammā sankappa)
三、正语——正直的言语。
Right Speech (Sammā vācā)
四、正业——端正的行为。
Right Action (Sammā kammanta)
五、正命——正当的职业。
Right Livelihood (Sammā ājiva)
六、正勤——正好的努力。
Right Effort (Sammā vāyāma)
七、正念——正净的忆念。
Right Mindfulness (Sammā sati)
八、正定——正统的禅定。
Right Concentration (Sammā samādhi)
 


Practically the whole teaching of the Buddha, to which he devoted himself during 45 years, deals in some way or other with this Path. He explained it in different ways in different words to different people, according to the stage of their development and their capacity to understand and follow him. But the essence of those many thousand discourses scattered in the Buddhist Scriptures is found in the Noble Eightfold Path.

佛献身说法四十五年,几乎在他的全部教诫中都牵涉到这一道谛。他以各种不同的方法、不同的措辞,对不同的人宣说这一真谛。完全视闻法者的根器、智慧以及力行能力,而对机施教。但是藏经里面成千卷佛所说经的要义,不外乎讲的是八正道。
 
It should not be thought that the eight categories or divisions of the Path should be followed and practised one after the other in the numerical order as given in the usual list above. But they are to be developed more or less simultaneously, as far as possible according to the capacity of each individual. They are all linked together and each helps the cultivation of the others.

读者诸君不可认为上面所列的八条途径,应当依照上开的一般次序而逐条修习。实际上,应当视各人能力所及,尽可能同时修习。这些道彼此之间互有关连。修习一道,也有助于培育其它各道。
 
These eight factors aim at promoting and perfecting the three essentials of Buddhist training and discipline: namely: (a) Ethical Conduct (Sila), (b) Mental Discipline (Samādhi) and (c) Wisdom (Paňňa). [1] It will therefore be more helpful for a coherent and better understanding of the eight divisions of the Path, if we group them and explain them according to these three heads.

这八条途径的主要目的,在促进及完成佛教的基本训练:就是所谓的戒、定、慧的三学。[注一]因此,如果将八正道依三学归类,自将有助于对此一真谛获得较有条理的了解。
 
Ethical Conduct (Sila) is built on the vast conception of universal love and compassion for all living beings, on which the Buddha's teaching is based. It is regrettable that many scholars forget this great ideal of the Buddha's teaching, and indulge in only dry philosophical and metaphysical divagations when they talk and write about Buddhism. The Buddha gave his teaching 'for the good of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world' (buhujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya).

戒学是建立在对一切众生普遍爱护、慈悲摄持的广大观念之上的。这也是佛教的基础。许多学者们谈到佛教或写作有关佛教的文字的时候,往往耽迷于枯燥的哲学及形上学的歧途之中,而忘记了佛教这一伟大理想,实在市一桩遗憾之至的事情。殊不知佛说法乃是‘为了众生的利益,为了众生的福祉,为了悲悯众生之故。’

According to Buddhism for a man to be perfect there are two qualities that he should develop equally: compassion (karunā) on one side, and wisdom (paňňa) on the other. Here compassion represents love, charity, kindness, tolerance and such noble qualities on the emotional side, or qualities of the heart, while wisdom would stand for the intellectual side or the qualities of the mind. If one develops only the emotional neglecting the intellectual, one may become a good-hearted fool; while to develop only the intellectual side neglecting the emotional may turn one into a hard-hearted intellect without feeling for others. Therefore, to be perfect one has to develop both equally. That is the aim of the Buddhist way of life: in it wisdom and compassion are inseparably linked together, as we shall see later.

根据佛教,一个完人必须具备两种品性:悲与慧。这两者必须予以等量的培育与发展。悲代表著爱、慈、善、恕以及情感方面的其他高尚情操,也就是心的品质。而慧则代表著理智方面或思想方面的品质。只发展情感而忽略了理智,会造成一个好心的傻瓜。只发展理智而忽略了情感,也许会使人变成一个铁石心肠的思想家,而毫无对人的同情。因此,要成为完人,必须两者等量培育。这就是佛教生活方式的目的。这里面,悲与慧是不可分的,下文便见分晓。

Now, in Ethical Conduct (Sila), based on love and compassions, are included three factors of the Noble Eightfold Path: namely, Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood. (Nos. 3, 4 and 5 in the list).
 
以爱与悲为基础的戒学里,包括了八正道中的三条道:正语、正业与正命。(前开第三、四、五等三正道)

Right speech means abstention (I) from telling lies, (2) from backbiting and slander and talk that may bring about hatred, enmity, disunity, and disharmony among individuals or groups of people, (3) from harsh, rude, impolite, malicious and abusive language, and (4) from idle, useless and foolish babble and gossip. When one abstains from these forms of wrong and harmful speech one naturally has to speak the truth, has to use words that are friendly and benevolent, pleasant and gentle, meaningful and useful. One should not speak carelessly: speech should be at the right time and place. If one cannot say something useful, one should keep 'noble silence'.
 
正语的意思是:(一)不妄语,(二)不窃议、诽谤、及发表足以引起个人或团体间憎恨、敌意、倾轧、不和的言论,(三)不用苛刻、粗鲁、无礼、酷毒、及骂詈的言辞,(四)不作无意义、无利益而愚蠢之饶舌与空谈。这几种不正当而有害的言语既已戒绝,则发言自然真实,用词自然友善、愉快、温柔、充满意义与利益。凡人发言,不可不慎。说话必须顾到时地。如所言无益,则应保持‘高贵的缄默’。

Right Action aims at promoting moral, honourable and peaceful product. It admonishes us that we should abstain from destroying life, from stealing, from dishonest dealings, from illegitimate sexual intercourse, and that we should also help others to lead a peaceful and honourable life in the right way.
 
正业的目的是提倡合乎道义、荣誉而和平的行为。它的戒条是不杀生、不偷盗、不作不诚实的交易,及非法的性交。而应当帮助别人过一种堂堂正正的、和平而光荣的生活。

Right Livelihood means that one should abstain from making one's living through a profession that brings harm to others, such as trading in arms and lethal weapons, intoxicating drinks, poisons, killing animals, cheating, etc., and should live by a profession which is honourable, blameless and innocent of harm to others. One can clearly see here that Buddhism is strongly opposed to any kind of war, when it lays down that trade in arms and lethal weapons is an evil and unjust means of livelihood.
 
正命的意思,就是不从事于他人有害的职业,例如贩卖军火武器、醇酒鸩毒、屠宰、欺诈等。而应以光荣无咎,不危害他人之职业为生计。从这一条可见佛教是强烈反对任何战争的。因为它制定贩卖军火武器是邪恶而不正当的生计。

These three factors (Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood) of the Eightfold Path constitute Ethical Conduct. It should be realized that the Buddhist ethical and moral conduct aims at promoting a happy and harmonious life both for the individual and for society. This moral conduct is considered as the indispensable foundation for all higher spiritual attainments. No spiritual development is possible without this moral basis.
 
八正道中这三条(正语、正业、正命)构成合乎伦理的行为(戒学)。须知佛教的伦理与道德的行为,是以增进个人及社会生活的和谐快乐为目的的。这种道德的行为,是所有精神方面的高度成就所不可或缺的基础。精神生活的开展,如果没有这道德的基础,是不可能达到的。

Next comes Mental Discipline, in which are included three other factors of the Eightfold Path: namely, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness (or Attentiveness) and Right Concentration. (Nos. 6, 7 and 8 in the list).
 
其次就是心智的锻炼(定学)。此包括了八正道的另外三条:正勤、正念(亦作正志)与正定(前开六、七、八等三条)。

Right Effort is the energetic will (I) to prevent evil and unwholesome states of mind from arising, and (2) to get rid of such evil and unwholesome states that have already arisen within a man, and also (3) to produce, to cause to arise, good and wholesome states of mind not yet arisen, and (4) to develop and bring to perfection the good and wholesome states of mind already present in a man.
 
正勤(亦作正精进)就是以坚强蓬勃的意志(一)以阻止邪恶不善的念头的生起,(二)以祛除已生起的邪恶不善的念头,(三)使得尚未生起的善良健全的念头得以生起,(四)使已生起的善良健全的念头充份发展而臻于至善之域。

Right Mindfulness (or Attentiveness) is to be diligently aware, mindful and attentive with regard to (I) the activities of the body (kāya), (2) sensations or feelings (vedanā), (3) the activities of the mind (citta) and (4) ideas, thoughts, conceptions and things (dhamma).
 
正念(或正志)(即所谓身、受、心、法之四念处——澄基注)就是对于(一)身体的活动,(二)情绪的感受,(三)心智的活动,(四)观念、思想、见解等法,精勤注意观照,忆念不懈。

The practice of concentration on breathing (ānāpānasati) is one of the well-known exercises, connected with the body, for mental development. There are several other ways of developing attentiveness in relation to the body-as modes of meditation.

将注意集中於呼吸(数息法),是一种很有名的方法,可以从锻炼身体而达到精神的开展。此外,尚有多种修习禅观的方法,也都以急中注意于身体为发展正念的途径。

With regard to sensations and feelings, one should be clearly aware of all forms of feelings and sensations, pleasant, unpleasant and neutral, of how they appear and disappear within oneself.
 
关于情绪的感受,行者必须对各种感受,不愉快的、中性的、以及它们在他体内生起及消失的过程,无不了了分明。

Concerning the activities of mind, one should be aware whether one's mind is lustful or not, given to hatred or not, deluded or not, distracted or concentrated, etc. In this way one should be aware of all movements of mind, how they arise and disappear.
 
关于心智的活动,行者必须自觉他的念头是否淫佚?是否嗔恚?是否迷惑?是否散乱?还是系著一处。就照这样子,行者对于本身每一举心动念,如何生起?如何消失?俱应了了分明。

As regards ideas, thoughts, conceptions and things, one should know their nature, how they appear and disappear, how they are developed, how they are suppressed, and destroyed, and so on.
 
至于意念、思想、观念等,行者必须了解它的性质:如何生起?如何消失?如何开展?如何抑制?摧毁?

These four forms of mental culture or meditation are treated in detail in the Satipatthāna-sutta (Setting-up of Mindfulness). [2]

以上四种心智的培育或禅观的修持,在《四念处经》中也有详尽的论究。[注二]

The third and last factor of Mental Discipline is Right Concentration leading to the four stages of Dhyāna, generally called trance or recueillement. In the first stage of Dhyāna, passionate desires and certain unwholesome thoughts like sensuous lust, ill-will, languor, worry, restlessness, and skeptical doubt are discarded, and feelings of joy and happiness are maintained, along with certain mental activities. In the second stage, all intellectual activities are suppressed, tranquillity and 'one-pointedness' of mind developed, and the feelings of joy and happiness are still retained. In the third stage, the feeling of joy, which is an active sensation, also disappears, while the disposition of happiness still remains in addition to mindful equanimity. In the fourth stage of Dhyāna, all sensations, even of happiness and unhappiness, of joy and sorrow, disappear, only pure equanimity and awareness remaining.
 
心智的锻炼中的第三项,也是最后一项,就是导致四禅的正定。这禅定一般都误叫它做出神或神游(编者注:出神或神游,是道教的一种特殊禅定,与佛教禅定不同,切须分别),修到初禅的时候,行者若干强烈的欲望以及不健全的思想如淫佚、嗔忿、贪睡、掉悔、疑法(五盖)等,一时尽除。心里常保持喜乐二支及某些心理活动。到二禅的境界时,所有思想的活动全部被抑制,从而产生内净支及一心支,同时保留喜支与乐支。三禅时,喜支因为是一至种动态的感受,也消失了。但是乐支仍在,另外还加了行舍的一支。到了四禅的境地,所有一切的感受,甚至乐、非乐、喜、忧悔都消失了,只余纯净的舍支与念支。

Thus the mind is trained and disciplined and developed through Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration.
 
心智就是这样子经由正勤、正念与正定的训练与约束而发达起来的。

The remaining two factors, namely Right Thought and Right Understanding go to constitute Wisdom.
 
其余两条道:正见与正思,就构成三学中的慧学。

Right Thought denotes the thoughts of selfless renunciation or detachment, thoughts of love and thoughts of non-violence, which are extended to all beings. It is very interesting and important to note here that thoughts of selfless detachment, love and non-violence are grouped on the side of wisdom. This clearly shows that true wisdom is endowed with these noble qualities, and that all thoughts of selfish desire, ill-will, hatred and violence are the result of a lack of wisdom-in all spheres of life whether individual, social, or political.
 
正思所表诠的,是对一切众生爱护的思维、非暴力的思维、及舍己的离欲不执著的思维。在这里请注意:将舍己的无著、爱护、以及非暴力的思维归在慧学之内,是很关重要的。这很明显的表示真正的智慧是赋有这些特质的。而一切自私的欲念、嗔恚、憎恨、暴力,都是缺乏智慧的结果。在任何的生活圈子里,无论是个人的、社会的、或政治的,都是如此。

Right Understanding is the understanding of things as they are, and it is the Four Noble Truths that explain things as they really are. Right Understanding therefore is ultimately reduced to the understanding of the Four Noble Truths. This understanding is the highest wisdom which sees the Ultimate Reality. According to Buddhism there are two sorts of understanding: What we generally call understanding is knowledge, an accumulated memory, an intellectual grasping of a subject according to certain given data. This is called 'knowing accordingly' (anubodha). It is not very deep. Real deep understanding is called 'penetration' (pativedha), seeing a thing in its true nature, without name and label. This penetration is possible only when the mind is free from all impurities and is fully developed through meditation. [3]
 
正见就是对事物的如实知见,而四圣谛也就是阐释一切事物的真相。因此,正见最后就变成对于四圣谛的知见。这知见就是直窥最终实相的最高智慧。根据佛教,知见有两种:我们一般称之为知见的实在只是知识;一堆累积的记忆,以及根据若干已知的条见,由理性对某一课题所得的了解而已。这种知见叫做事见,是不很深入的见解。真正深入的知见叫做理见,是不关事物的名称、标志,而对其实际相状所具的真知灼见。这种深见只有在心地中一切杂染都已涤除净尽,而且经过禅定的锻炼,达到充分发展的程度,方有可能。

From this brief account of the Path, one may see that it is a way of life to be followed, practised and developed by each individual. It is self-discipline in body, word and mind, self-development and self-purification. It has nothing to do with belief, prayer, worship or ceremony. In that sense, it has nothing which may popularly be called 'religious'. It is a Path leading to the realization of Ultimate Reality, to complete freedom, happiness and peace through moral, spiritual and intellectual perfection.
 
从这篇简短的叙述道谛的文字里,可以看出这‘道’乃是一种生活方式,为每一个人所应遵行、修习、宏扬的。它是身口意的自律、自我的开展、自我的净化。它与信仰、祈祷、崇拜与仪规完全无关。从这一意义来讲,它不含有任何通俗称为‘宗教’的成分。它是一条通过道德、理性与精神的完美化而走向最终实相、圆满自在、快乐与和平的途径。
 
In Buddhist countries there are simple and beautiful customs are ceremonies or religious occasions. They have little to do with the real Path. But they have their value in satisfying certain religious emotions and the needs of those who are less advanced, and helping them gradually along the Path.

在佛教国度里,遇到宗教节日,也有些简单而优美的习俗与仪式。它们与真正的‘道’很少关系。但也有相当的价值,因为它们能满足对教义理解较浅的信徒们若干宗教情绪的需要,而逐渐援引他们走上这条圣道。

With regard to the Four Noble Truths we have four functions to perform:
 
关于四圣谛,我们有四桩事情要做:

The First Noble Truth is Dukkha, the nature of life, its suffering, its sorrows and joys, its imperfection and unsatisfactoriness, its impermanence and insubstantially. With regard to this, our function is to understand it as a fact, clearly and completely (pariňňeyya).
 
第一圣谛是苦谛——人生的实相。一切苦难、忧患、喜乐、缺陷、不如意、无常、无实,都是人生的实际。关于这点,我们要做的,清处而澈底地了知这苦的事实。

The Second Noble Truth is the Origin of Dukka, which is desire, 'thirst', accompanied by all other passions, defilements and impurities. A mere understanding of this fact is not sufficient. Here our function is to discard it, to eliminate, to destroy and eradicate it (pahātabba).
 
第二圣谛——苦的根源。这根源是贪欲、‘渴(爱)’以及伴随著它们的种种染污不净法。仅仅了解这一事实是不够的。我们要做的,是抛弃它、祛除它、消灭它、根绝它。

The Third Noble Truth is the Cessation of Dukkha, Nirvāna, the Absolute Truth, the Ultimate Reality. Here our function is to realize it (sacchikātabba).
 
第三圣谛是灭谛——涅槃、绝对真理、最终实相。在这方面我们要做的,是去亲身体证它。

The Fourth Noble Truth is the Path leading to the realization of Nirvāna. A mere knowledge of the Path, however complete, will not do. In this case, our function is to follow it and keep to it (bhāvetabba). [4]
 
第四圣谛——导向体证涅槃之路。但仅仅有了对这‘道’的智识,不论多么澈底,都是没有用的。这方面我们的工作是依教奉行,锲而不舍。[注四]

[1] M I (PTS), p. 301

[2] See Chapter VII on Meditation.

[3] Vism. (PTS), p. 510

[4] Mhvg. (Alutgama, 1922), p. 10
 
注释:
 
一:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第一集第三零一页。
 
二:见本书第七章‘修习:心智之培育’。
 
三:见巴利文学会版《清净道论》第五一零页。
 
四:见一九二二年阿路葛玛版大品第一零页。


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