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24 -Craving (Dh.334-359) 二十四、爱欲品
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24 -Craving (Dh.334-359)

334. The craving of one given to heedless living grows like a creeper. Like the monkey seeking fruits in the forest, he leaps fromlife tolife (tasting thefruit ofhis kamma).

335. Whoever is overcome by this wretched and sticky craving, his sorrows growlike grass after therains. 336. But whoever overcomes this wretched craving, so difficult to overcome, from him sorrows fall away like water from a lotus leaf. 337. This I say to you: Good luck to all assembled here! Dig up the root of craving, like one in search of the fragrant roots of birana grass. Let not Mara crush you again and again, as a flood crushes a reed. wretched︰a.卑鄙的 ,可耻的。 sticky︰a.黏的,棘手的。


〈334~ 337〉

1沙门、圣人 (brahmabba婆罗门 )︰指佛陀、辟支佛、阿拉汉。 2佛陀住喜玛拉雅山时,发现当地受暴君统治,心想是否有法王子可以来 统治,魔波旬怂恿佛陀当国王。佛陀说此偈。

334若住于放逸,爱增如蔓萝。此生又彼生,如猿求林果。 335若于此世界,为恶欲缠缚,忧苦日增长,如毘罗1得雨。 336若于此世界,降难降爱欲,忧苦自除落,如水滴莲叶。 337我说此善事:汝等集于此,掘爱欲之根,如求毘罗那,


338. Just as a tree, though cut down, sprouts up again if its roots remain uncut and firm, even so, until the craving that lies dormant is rootedout, suffering springs up again and again. 339. The misguided man in whom The thirty-six currents of craving rush strongly toward pleasurable objects, is swept away by the flood ofhis passionate thoughts. 340. Everywhere these currents flow, and the creeper (of craving) sprouts and grows. Seeing that the creeper has sprung up, cut off its rootwith wisdom. 341. Flowing in (from all objects) and watered by craving, feelings of pleasure arise in beings. Bent on pleasures and seeking enjoyment, these men fall prey tobirthand decay. 1毘罗:Birana,岩兰草、须芒草 (Andropogonmuricatum)。味道带点青苔味, 属于越陈越香的精油。原产地印度称为「 Khas-khas」,所谓「镇定之油」。 它能平和心情,稳定情绪,对付紧张,压力造成的失眠。

2舍卫城的一群渔夫捕到一条漂亮的金色鱼,就把它献给国王,国王就带 着鱼去见世尊。这一条鱼张开嘴巴时,口臭难闻,国王问佛陀原因。佛 陀说,迦叶佛时,这鱼原是一名叫迦毗罗的比丘,由于娴熟佛法,所以 有好名声,但也因此贡高,瞧不起其他比丘。迦毗罗曾教导佛法,所以 具有金色鱼身,但是他辱骂其他比丘和法,所以有口臭难闻。最后佛陀 告诫大众要解行并重。

342. Beset by craving, people run about like an entrapped hare. Held fast by mental fetters, they come to suffering again and again for along time. 343. Beset by craving, people run about like an entrapped hare. Therefore, one who yearns to be passion-free should destroy his owncraving. sprout︰v.使萌芽 ;使生长。 The thirty-six currents of craving(三十六爱 ): the three cravings--for sensual pleasure, for continued existence, and for annihilation--in relation to each of thetwelve bases--the sixsense organs, including mind,andtheir corresponding objects. prey︰n.捕食。 v.掠夺,诈取。 Entrapped︰使投罗网。

〈338~ 343〉 338不伤深固根,虽伐树还生。爱欲不断根,苦生亦复尔。 339彼具三十六爱流1,势强奔流向欲境,是则彼具邪见人,

为欲思惟漂荡去。 340欲流处处流,蔓萝2盛发芽。汝见蔓萝生,以慧断其根。 341世喜悦欲滋润,亦喜驰逐六尘。彼虽向乐求乐,

1三十六爱: DhA.vv.338.~343./CS:pg.2.332.︰ “iti ajjhattikassupadaya attharasa tanhavicaritani bahirassupadaya attharasa tanhavicaritani”ti.(内 有十八爱行,外有十八爱行,这是(三十六)爱行。)。十八爱行:眼.耳. 鼻.舌.身.意,各个的欲爱、有爱、无有爱 (不再生存的爱 )。内︰指自己。 外︰指他人。



但唯得于生灭。 342随逐爱欲人,驰回如网兔。缠缚于烦恼,再再长受苦。 343随逐爱欲人,驰回如网兔。比库求无欲,故须自离欲。 1

344. There is one who, turning away from desire ( for household life) takes to the life of the forest (i.e. of a monk). But after being freed from the household, he runs back to it. Behold that man! Though freed, he runs back to thatverybondage! 345-346. That is not a strong fetter, the wise say, which is made of iron, wood or hemp. But the infatuation and longing for jewels and ornaments, children and spouses --that, they say, is a far stronger fetter, which pulls one downward and, though seemingly loose, is hard to remove. This, too, the wise cut off. Giving up sensual pleasure, and without any longing, they

1有一次,佛陀到王舍城托钵时,见到一只母猪,作了微笑。阿难尊者问 因缘,佛陀说︰「这只母猪在拘留孙佛 (Kakusandassa Bhagavato,这个贤 劫的第一尊佛,第二尊为拘那含佛,第三尊为释迦牟尼佛 )时,住在附近 的母鸡,有机会听到唱诵毘钵舍那业处的法音,死后成为一位 Ubbari 公主,她有一天看到厕所的蛆虫,生起虫聚相 (pulavakasabbam),得到初 禅,死亡后投生梵天,又经多次转生,这一生 (因为恶业 ),生为猪,这 是我微笑的原因。」

renounce theworld.

hemp︰n.麻类; a.麻类植物的。

344舍欲 .喜林间 1,离欲复向欲,当观于此人:解缚复向缚。 2

〈345~ 346〉 345铁.木.麻作者,智说非坚缚。迷恋妻.子.财,是实为坚缚。 346能引堕落者,智说为坚缚。彼虽似宽缓,而实难解脱。


2一位出家又还俗的弟子,后来沦为小偷,将被处决时,因他的修持禅定, 表露镇定,被刽子手感动,刽子手向国王报告,后来被释放,世尊知道 后,说出此偈。此弟子后来又出家并证得初果。


347. Those who are lust-infatuated fall back to the swirling current (of samsara) like a spider on its self-spun web. This too the wise cut off. Without any longing, they abandon all suffering and renounce theworld. 348. Let go of the past, let go of the future, let go of the present, and cross over to the farther shore of existence. With mind wholly liberated, you shall come no more to birthand death. 1一群比丘早上托钵时,看见拘萨罗王(Kosalarabbo)押解许多位破坏份子 (sandhicchedaka)、小偷 (panthaghataka)、杀手 (manussaghataka)、盗匪 (cora)。回到精舍后,他们向世尊报告被捕下狱的盗贼,并问世尊有没有 比镣铐更束缚的东西,世尊因此说出此偈。本段另译作︰「铁 .绳以及木, 或以苇之网,贤者不云缚;以心为迷醉,宝玉及珠环,系念妻与子,贤 者云强缚;牵引于此人,虽缓亦难离;无欲舍欲乐,断此而出家。」 (cf. S.3.10.Bandhana(系缚)﹐《别译杂阿含 62经》﹐ J.201.)。

349. For a person tormented by evil thoughts, who is passion- dominated and given to the pursuit of pleasure, his craving steadily grows. He makes the fetter strongindeed. 350. He who delights in subduing evil thoughts, who meditates on the impurities and is ever mindful --it is he who will make an end ofcraving and rend asunder Mara’s fetter. infatuated︰a.入迷的。

347彼耽于欲随欲流,投自结网如蜘蛛。断此缚而无着者, 离一切苦而遨游1。


1离一切苦而遨游:anapekkhino(离) sabbadukkham(一切苦 ) pahaya(舍),舍 离一切苦。巴利文无「遨游」之意。

2有一次,一个杂技团来王舍城表演。有一位名字叫做优迦绅那 (Uggaseno) 的年轻富家子在观赏一位漂亮的女舞者的表演后,爱上她,跟她结婚。 婚后,他跟着这戏团到处去,但他只做杂役。因太太的讽刺,他就训练 成为一位杰出的特技演员。后来,杂技团再度回到王舍城表演,优迦绅

〈349~ 350〉 349恶想所乱者,求乐欲炽然,彼欲倍增长,自作坚牢缚。 350喜离恶想者,常念于不净。当除于爱欲,不为魔罗缚。1

351. He who has reached the goal, is fearless, free from craving, passionless, has plucked out the thorns of existence --for him this is thelast body. 352. He who is free from craving and attachment, is perfect in uncovering the true meaning of the Teaching, and knows the arrangement of the sacred texts in correct sequence --he, indeed, is the bearer of his final body. He is truly called the 那出场表演。这时候佛陀透过神通,知道他了解佛法的机缘成熟了。佛 陀就进入戏团表演的场地,并且运用神通使观众的注意力转移到他身 上,而忘了喝采。优迦绅那心里不高兴。佛陀就告诫他:「优迦绅那! 有智慧的人不执着因缘和合的事物,反而精进修行,希望解脱生死轮 回。」优迦绅那就在竹竿上,立刻证得阿拉汉果。然后,他出家。佛陀 说优迦绅那出生在迦叶佛的那一世,某日,他和太太布施给一位比丘, 并许愿:「尊者!愿我们能如实知见佛法。」当时,那位阿拉汉比丘以 神通观察未来,发现他们会达成愿望,就微笑一下。优迦绅那并不知情, 反而轻蔑的说,这比丘像个戏子。由于他的轻浮,才会跟戏班去跑码头。

1一为女子爱上一为比丘,比丘也迷恋她,因此日渐憔悴。佛陀告诫他, 他过去世曾在怛剎尸罗国 (Takkasila,梵 Taksawila德叉尸罗,离波罗奈约 1500公里,佛世时的文教鼎盛的城市)学习弓箭,成为神弓箭手,弓箭 把女儿许配给他,有一天他杀到波罗奈(Baranasi),遇上强盗,他用五十 支箭射死五十位强盗,弓箭用完了,他要他的太太拿刀给他,准备杀强 盗首领,但是当他的太太一见到首领,就爱上他,于是把刀交给首领, 他被首领杀死,他的太太跟首领远走高飞,后来首领对她有疑虑,也遗 弃她。这位女子,就是过去世曾让他丧生的那位女子。

profoundly wise one, the greatman.

353. A victor am I over all, all have I known, yet unattached am I to all that is conquered and known. Abandoning all, I am freed through the destruction of craving. Having thus directly comprehended all by myself, whomshall I calm my teacher? 354. The gift of Dhamma excels all gifts; the taste of Dhamma excels all tastes; the delight in Dhamma excels all delights. The Craving-Freed vanquishes all suffering. thorns︰n.恼人的事,有刺植物。

〈351~ 352〉

351达究竟处无畏,离爱欲.无垢秽,断除生有之箭, 此为彼最后身。


1 nirittipadakovido为「通达词与他句」,指四无碍解(catupatisambhida)─ ─词义 (nirutti)、义理 (attha)、法 (dhamma原理)、辩才 (patibhana)。「字 聚次第」指辩才。


353我降伏一切,我了知一切。一切法无染,离弃于一切,灭 欲得解脱,自证谁称师?2


355. Riches ruin only the foolish, not those in quest of theBeyond. By craving for riches the witless man ruins himself as well as others.

356. Weeds are the bane of fields, lust the bane of mankind. 1众多比丘在非时 (vikale,过中午到隔日天亮 )来竹林精舍,罗睺罗尊者 (Rahulatthera)被安排在佛陀的香室 (Gandhakuti)门口睡觉。当时罗睺罗已 经证得阿拉汉果,晚上魔波旬来恐吓,但是他不会害怕。佛陀说︰「如 此的百千个魔罗,我的儿子也不可能害怕,儿子已不发抖,无贪爱,大 精进,大智慧。」大丈夫︰mahapuriso。S.47.11.(世尊说):「舍利弗! 心解脱故,我称之为大丈夫;心未解脱者,则不称为大丈夫。」

2佛陀成道后往鹿野苑途中,遇邪命外道优波迦 (Upako),他问佛陀,佛陀 以此句回答。优波迦接着问法,佛陀就跟他开示。听法后,优波迦不置 可否,摇头伸舌,就离开了。 (DhA.CS:pg.2.350;M.26./I,171.;cf. Vin.I,p.8.)

3有一次,忉利天神聚集在一起讨论四个问题,但无法得到最佳的答案。 最后,帝释和他们一齐赴祇树给孤独园去见佛陀,向佛陀提出他们的四 个问题:(1)什幺是最佳的礼物?(2)什幺是味道最好的东西?(3)什幺是 最喜悦的事? (4)为什幺弃绝爱欲最卓越? (“kataram danam nu kho danesu, kataro raso rasesu, katara rati ratisu jetthaka, tanhakkhayova kasma jetthakoti vuccati”ti?)佛陀回答道:「 (1)所有的礼物,佛法是最高尚的,

(2)所有的味,法味最上味的。(3)所有的喜,法喜是最上喜的。(4)弃绝 爱欲,胜过所有苦。」 (“Sabbadanam dhammadanam jinati, Sabbarasam dhammaraso jinati. Sabbaratim dhammarati jinati, Tanhakkhayo sabbadukkham jinati”ti.) Therefore what is offered to those free of lust yields abundant fruit.

355财富毁灭愚人,决非求彼岸者。愚人为财欲害, 自害如害他人。1

1本则为无子富翁 (Aputtakasetthi)的故事。无子富翁身后无子女继承,全部 财产悉数入公库。波斯匿王前接收富翁的财产之后,来见佛陀,报告那 位富翁生前非常吝啬,从来没有做过一件善事,自己不舍得花钱,省吃 俭用一生只穿粗布衣裳。佛陀说,那富翁前世也是一位富翁:有一天, 当一位独觉佛来到他家托钵,他叫妻子随便布施点食物。那富翁在路上

〈356~ 359〉 356杂草害田地,贪欲害世人。施与离贪者,故得大果报。 357杂草害田地,瞋恚害世人。施与离瞋者,故得大果报。 358杂草害田地,愚痴害世人。施与离痴者,故得大果报。 359杂草害田地,欲望害世人。施与离欲者,故得大果报。1

357. Weeds are the bane of fields, hatred is the bane of mankind. Therefore what is offered to those free of hatred yields abundant fruit. 358. Weeds are the bane of fields, delusion is the bane of mankind. Therefore what is offered to those free of delusion yields abundant fruit. 359. Weeds are the bane of fields, desire is the bane of mankind. Therefore, what is offered to those free of desire yields abundant fruit.

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