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弟子规浅释 Standards for Students 第八章﹕余力学文 Chapter Eight ﹕ON LEARNING - 5
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第八章﹕余力学文
Chapter Eight ﹕ON LEARNING

不力行,但学文,长浮华,成何人。
但力行,不学文,任己见,昧理真。
读书法,有三到,心眼口,信皆要。
方读此,勿慕彼,此未终,彼勿起。
宽为限,紧用功,工夫到,滞塞通。
心有疑,随札记,就人问,求确义。
房室清,墙壁净,几案洁,笔砚正。
墨磨偏,心不端,字不敬,心先病。
列典籍,有定处,读看毕,还原处。
虽有急,卷束齐,有缺坏,就补之。
非圣书,屏不视,蔽聪明,坏心志。
勿自暴,勿自弃,圣与贤,可驯致。

lie

dian

ji

 

you

ding

chu

陈列

书籍

 

固定

地方

to arrange in order

books

have

fixed

place

排放书籍杂志,要有一定的位置。
Each book that you use should have its own place on the shelf.

du

kan

bi

 

huan

yuan

chu

完、结束

 

归回

原来

地方

study

reading

to finish

to return

original

place

读看完毕,要放回原来的地方。
After you finish reading, put the books back where they belong.

sui

you

ji

 

juan

shu

qi

即使

紧急

 

卷成一卷

用绳子捆扎

整齐

although

to have

an urgent matter

to roll

to bind

tidily and neatly

就是有急事,也要把书收拾整齐。
Even when in a hurry , you should close your books the right way.

you

que

huai

 

jiu

bu

zhi

残缺不全

破损

 

那么、立即

修补

to have

missing

damaged

then; right away

to repair

them

书籍如果有残缺或破损,就随时把它修补好。
If the pages or cover are damaged, be sure to take time to repair them.

前章说到﹕我们应及早训练孩子在「整洁有序」上下工夫,让孩子支配自己的人生,成为一个心灵条理井然的人;这不唯是对居家的环境而说,甚至对于所有穿戴应用的衣服物品也要珍重爱惜。

The previous passage said that we should teach our children early on to be tidy and orderly, so that they will know how to lead their own lives and be disciplined in spirit. They ought to cherish not only their home environment, but their clothes and belongings as well.

前面讲「谨」的部份已提过,不但穿衣戴帽,着袜纳履要端正紧切,就是衣帽也要有定位,不可随用随丢,弄得又脏又乱;这儿再强调:对于书籍也是一样,要保持整洁有序。一丝一缕,固然当思来处不易,对于圣贤之言的典籍,更要深生珍重之心。书籍的摆放要分门别类,各有其一定的位置,用时才方便:读看过后,再归回原处,下次读用时,即时可以找到,岂不省了多少翻找的时间?

The earlier section on "Learning to Be careful" mentioned that one’s clothes, hat, socks, and shoes should be neat and kept in their proper places; one must not casually leave them where they might get dirty or ruined. This section stresses that books ought to be kept in order as well. One must remember that even a piece of thread is hard to come by; how much the more should one treasure books containing the words of sages. Books should be classified and stored according to type, making them convenient to use. If they are returned to their place after one is done reading them, they will be easy to locate the next time one needs them, thus saving a lot of time.

古代中国的书籍,从最早的竹策、苇编,到后来的线装纸面书,都很容易产生脱线缺页,或磨损模糊的现象;所以取读时必须小心,轻拿轻放,有破损缺页,应马上补修重钉,以免继续散失或损毁。即使是现代的平面精装版,若不加以爱护,也一样会破损脱落或散失流佚;那么下回再读用时,是否得再买呢?若是绝版书,就有钱也买不到了!因此,日用间的条理井然,整洁有序,节省的不单是时间,也是金钱。一个人是不是有成就,是不 是能做自己的主,端看他日用间是否爱惜物事,条理井然 。

Ancient Chinese books-from the earliest bamboo tablets and reed pages to later string-bound paper books-tended to fall apart and lose their pages, or the writing would fade and rub off. Thus, it was essential to treat books carefully, picking them up and setting them down gently, and immediately repairing any damage. If pages were missing, one would immediately rebind the book to prevent further loss. If one does not handle a modern hardcover book gently, even it will fall apart and lose pages, and one will have to buy another copy the next time one wants to read it. If it is out of print, however, that simply won’t be possible. Thus, the habit of being organized in one’s daily life saves not only time but money. To tell whether people are successful and in control of their own lives, observe to see how organized they are and how carefully they handle things from day to day.

好学的阿伯拉罕‧林肯,自小家境贫穷,必须半工半读;林肯买不起许多书,大部份的书,都是他向人借来读的。他在少年时候,就很佩服美国第一任总统乔治‧华盛顿;一天,他跟朋友借到了一本《华盛顿传》,他看了又看,总是手不离书,书不离手。一个夜里,大雨倾盆,他简陋的小屋漏水,把《华盛顿传》打湿了;书烘干后,仍是绉绉的,书皮也显得很脏。

Abraham Lincoln, known for his love of learning, was born in a poor family and had to work to support his schooling. Since Lincoln could not afford to buy many books, he borrowed most of them from others. As a young boy, he looked up to George Washington, the first President. One day his friend lent him a biography of Washington. He read it over and over, unable to set it down. One night during a huge downpour, the roof of his humble home leaked and the book got wet. After he dried it by the fire, the pages were all wrinkled and the cover was stained.

林肯很难过,心想:「如果把这样的书还给朋友,以后人家有书,就再也不肯借我了!」因此他就去给人家做了三天工,把所得的工资,买了一本新的《华盛顿傅》,然后还给朋友。他的朋友很高兴林肯的这种行为,把新书收下,却又把书钱给他,叫他再买别的书来看。林肯感激得差点儿掉下泪来。后来他把那本淋过雨的《华盛顿传》,天天捧着读,把华盛顿当做自己的老师。从这个小故事看来,林肯自小就这么珍视书籍,努力学习,又讲究信用,因此终于能成就他的学问事业,解放了黑奴,当上美国的第十六任总统;这一切岂是用偶然和幸运可言的呢?

Lincoln thought in despair, "If I return the book to my friend in this shape, people will never lend me another book again!" Then he worked for three days, and used his wages to buy a new copy of the biography of Washington for his friend. His friend approved heartily of Lincoln’s deed. After taking the book, he paid Lincoln for it and told him to buy another book with the money. Lincoln was grateful almost to the point of tears. Later, he reverently held the rain-drenched biography of Washington and read it every day, regarding Washington as his teacher. From that anecdote, we see that from his childhood, Lincoln cherished books, studied hard, and was absolutely trustworthy. Thus, he succeeded in completing his studies at last, freed the black slaves, and served as the sixteenth President of the United States. How could all of that have been mere chance or luck?

书籍是前人的智慧和经验的结晶,读书可以增长见闻,累积他人的知识学问为己用,做起事来就事半功倍;更重要的是可以从中熏习,养成正确的观念,良好的品德,好处真是说也说不完!可是不论中外,年代愈是古老,造书愈是不易,书籍也就愈贵,加上政治社会造成的阶级制度,教育亦不能普遍;因此很多贫寒低下的人家,因为无法就学,世代永难出头。但是事在人为,历史上也多的是苦学成功的例子,像林肯,还有前面提到的黑人教育家勃克‧华盛顿。中国古代也有很多大学问家,都是以毅力和智慧来克服没有书的困难。

Books are crystallizations of the wisdom and experiences of those who came before us. Reading broadens our perspective and enables us to adapt others’ knowledge for our own use, so that we do things more efficiently. More importantly, we can develop proper concepts and good character through the influence of what we read. The benefits are endless! In every culture, the earlier we go back in history, the harder it was to make books and the more expensive they were. Due to the social and political systems in the past, education was not universal. Thus most poor and lowly families had no access to schooling and no opportunity to improve their lot. However, people can determine their own destinies, and there have also been examples of people who underwent hardships and achieved success, such as Lincoln and the black educator, Booker T. Washington. In ancient China, there were also many great scholars who overcame the hardship of the dearth of books by determination and intelligence.

《三字经》说﹕「披蒲编,削竹简;彼无书,且知勉。」就说的汉朝的路温舒和公孙弘。

A line in the Three Character Classic goes, "They wove rushes and shaved bamboo slips. Though they had no books, they pushed themselves to study." That line alludes to Lu Wenshu and Gong Sun Hong of the Han dynasty.

路温舒自小家贫,替人放羊;他就把宽宽的干蒲草编在一起,然后向人借书来抄在上面,以便反复研读,后来终成有名的文学家和政治家。公孙弘家境也很穷,一直到五十岁,还为人放猪度日。他为了想读书,就利用在林中放猪的时候,把竹子削成片,去掉青皮,再把借来的《春秋》刻写在竹片上;如此苦读,终于当到了宰相。

Lu Wenshu came from a poor family and worked as a shepherd for others. He would copy books borrowed from others onto sheets of dried rushes that he had woven, so that he could read and study them over and over. Thus he became an eminent writer and statesman. Gongsun Hong also came from a poor family. Even at age fifty, he still herded pigs for others to support himself. Wishing to study, he whittled bamboo into slips, shaving off the green skin, then carved theSpring and Autumn Annals onto it from a book he had borrowed. Studying under such difficult circumstances, he eventually became the prime minister.

又宋朝的大文豪欧阳修,自小丧父家贫,母亲欧阳夫人就在地上铺了沙子,用荻草为笔,教子识字,给了欧阳修很好的启蒙教育。这些故事,都是没有书而仍能苦学成功的典范。我们现在印刷业发达,教育普及,人人可以读书受基本教育;可是却有越来越多的孩子不但不珍惜书籍,甚至逃学去做荒唐事,糟蹋了个人的大好青春时光,更成为妨害国家社会的寄生虫和害虫,真是可惜可惜之至啊!

The great writer Ouyang Xiu of the Song dynasty also came from a poor family and lost his father at a young age. His mother, Mrs. Ouyang, taught her son to read by spreading sand on the ground and using a reed as a brush. She gave Ouyang Xiu an excellent primary education. Those are all stories of people who studied hard and succeeded despite the lack of books. Nowadays, with advanced publishing techniques and universal public education, everyone can get a basic education. However, not only are more and more children unappreciative of books, they even skip school to engage in improper activities, wasting their precious youth and becoming parasites and scoundrels of society. What a terrible pity!


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