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百喻经 34 送美水喻 To Send Pure Spring Water
 
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34  To Send Pure Spring Water

34送美水喻

Once upon a time, there was a village, which was located five Yojanas away from the city and supplied pure spring water. The king ordered the water to be sent to him in the palace every day by the villagers. Becoming utterly weary of the irksome task, they all wanted to move away to some remote place.

To them, the village chief said,"Don't go away. I'll talk with the king for you to alter the distance between here and the palace from five Yojanas into three Yojanas. It would be closer for coming and going without much weariness."

The chief hastened to report to the king who changed the mileage. People were delighted at knowing this. Some of them said that there was no difference whatsoever. Most still stayed on, because of their newly reassured confidence in the king.

So are the people in various walks of life.

Those who devote themselves to the right religion for crossing the Five Paths toward the Nirvana City, intend to abandon their faith when they are weary and exhausted. Traveling by the transmigration boat, they are unable to make their way toward the shore.

However, Buddha, the king of the Law, has many expedient means from the One Vehicle to the Three Vehicles. Those who follow the Hinayana sect are glad to hear those words and find it easier to practice. Therefore, they spare no effort to do good deeds and improve themselves spiritually so as to make their way of transmigration toward the other shores. Afterwards, they realize that there is no Three Vehicles but ones. Because of the confidence in Buddha's words, they do not want to abandon their faith by then.

This is just like the story of the villagers ending pure spring water.

译文

从前有个村落,距王城五由旬路程。村中有好美水。国王命令村里人日日给他送美水去。村里人疲苦不堪,全都想移居到别处去,远离这个村落。这时村长对众人说:「请大家不要离开,我会替你们去跟国王讲,把五由旬的路程改称三由旬,使距离短些,你们往来就不疲苦了。」村长即去对国王讲了。国王同意改为三由旬。众人听了,就很是欢喜。有人说道:「这依旧是原先的五由旬,一点也没有变。」村民们虽是听了这话,然而相信国王的言语的缘故,终究不肯搬走。

世上的人也是这样,修行着大乘正法,度过地狱、饿鬼、畜生、人、天这五道,向泯灭了生死因果的涅槃城走去,却产生了厌倦的心情,就想避开这条漫长的路途,祈望顿时凌越出生死的轮回,不想再进一步地修行正法了。如来法王就用权便的方法,把纯粹一乘的正法分开来说成声闻、缘觉、菩萨三乘。具有小乘根性的人听了,很是欢喜,以为容易实行,便继续修行善德,以求渡过生死苦海。后来又听人说没有三乘,原本就是同一条道路,就是菩萨乘这一乘。因为信奉佛说法的缘故,终究不肯舍去成见的执着。像那些村民一样,信奉国王的言语。

原典

昔有一聚落,去王城五由旬①。村中有好美水。王敕村人,常使日日送其美水。村人疲苦,悉欲移避,远此村去。时彼村主语诸人言:「汝等莫去,我当为汝白王,改五由旬作三由旬,使汝得近,往来不疲。」即往白王。王为改之,作三由旬。众人闻已,便大欢喜。有人语言:「此故是本五由旬,更无有异。」虽闻此语,信王语故,终不肯去。

世间之人,亦复如是,修行正法,度于五道,向涅槃城,心生厌倦,便欲舍离,顿驾生死,不能复进。如来法王有大方便,于一乘法分别说三。小乘之人,闻之欢喜,以为易行,修善进德,求度生死。后闻人说,无有三乘,故是一道。以信佛语,终不肯舍。如彼村人,亦复如是。

注释

①由旬:印度古代计程单位,是梵文yojana的音译,此词的原初含义是套一次牛所行的路程,只是一个大致的界定而已,约三十里左右。

源流

《庄子·齐物论》:狙公赋(分配)茅,曰:「朝三而暮四。」众狙皆怒。曰:「然则朝四而暮三。」众狙皆悦。名实未亏而喜怒为用,亦因是也。

《列子·黄帝》:宋有狙公者,爱狙,养之成群,能解狙之意,狙亦得公之心。损其家口,充狙之欲。俄耳匮焉,将限其食,恐众狙之不驯于己也,先诳之曰:「与若茅,朝三而暮四,足乎?」众狙皆起而怒。俄而曰:「与若茅,朝四而暮三,足乎?」众狙皆伏而喜。物之以能鄙相笼,皆犹此也。圣人以智笼群愚,亦犹狙公以智笼众狙也。名实不亏,使其喜怒哉。

《妙法莲华经》卷六<譬喻品>:国邑聚落,有大长者,……财富无量,……其家广大,唯有一门……周匝俱时欻然火起,焚烧舍宅。长者诸子,若十二十或至三十,在此宅中。长者见是大火从四面起,即大惊怖,而作是念:我虽能于此所烧之门安隐得出,而诸子等于火宅内乐着嬉戏,不觉不知,不惊不怖,火来逼身,苦痛切己,心不厌患,无求出意。……

是长者作是思惟:我身手有力,当以衣裓,若以几案,从舍出之。复更思惟:是舍唯有一门,而复陋小,诸子幼稚,未有所识,恋着戏处,或当堕落,为火所烧。我当为说怖畏之事,此舍已烧,宜时疾出,无令为火之所烧害。作是念已,如所思惟,具告诸子:「汝等速出!」父虽怜悯,善言诱喻,而诸子等乐着嬉戏,不肯信受,不惊不畏,了无出心,亦复不知何者是火,何者为舍,云何为失,但东西走戏,视父而已。尔时长者即作是念……:我今当设方便,令诸子等得免斯害。父知诸子先心各有所好种种珍玩奇异之物,情必乐着,而告之言:「汝等所可玩好,希有难得,汝若不取,后必忧悔。如此种种羊车、鹿车、牛车,今在门外,可以游戏。汝等于此火宅宜速出来,随汝所欲,皆当与汝。」

尔时,诸子闻父所说珍玩之物,适其愿故,心各勇锐,互相推排,竞共驰走,争出火宅。是时,长者见诸子等安隐得出,皆于四衢道中露地而坐,无复障碍,其心泰然,欢喜踊跃。时,诸子等各白父言:「父先所许玩好之具,羊车、鹿车、牛车,愿时赐与。」……尔时,长者各赐诸子等一大车,其车高广,众宝庄校。……如彼长者,初以三车诱引诸子,然后但与大车,宝物庄严,安隐第一,然彼长者无虚妄之咎,如来亦复如是,无有虚妄。

初说三乘引导众生,然后但以大乘而度脱之。何以故?如来有无量智慧力无所畏诸法之藏,能与一切众生大乘之法,但不尽能受。……以是因缘,当知诸佛方便力故,于一佛乘,分别说三。(《大正藏》第九册第十二至十三页)

解说

方便是相对于真实而言的,根本的旨归是真实,而借助于善巧、善权,以便进入到那真实之门去,就是方便了。从根本上来说,方便其实并不存在,只是随顺事物权且显现而已。


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