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Mindfulness In Plain English - Chapter 10: Dealing With Problems
 
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Mindfulness In Plain English

佛教禅修直解

by Mahathera Henepola Gunaratana

德宝法师著作
梁国雄居士译

Chapter 10: Dealing With Problems

第十章 问题的处理

You are going to run into problems in your meditation. Everybody does. Problems come in all shapes and sizes, and the only thing you can be absolutely certain about is that you will have some. The main trick in dealing with obstacles is to adopt the right attitude. Difficulties are an integral part of your practice. They aren't something to be avoided. They are something to be used. They provide invaluable opportunities for learning.

在禅修中你会偶然遇到问题,没有人是不会的。出现的问题式样繁多,有大有小,你肯定会遇到一些,而处理的诀窍在于有适当的态度。困难是禅修的一个有机组成部分,我们不必回避它们,而是要利用它们,因为它们提供机会给我们学习。

The reason we are all stuck in life's mud is that we ceaselessly run from our problems and after our desires. Meditation provides us with a laboratory situation in which we can examine this syndrome and devise strategies for dealing with it. The various snags and hassles that arise during meditation are grist for the mill. They are the material on which we work. There is no pleasure without some degree of pain. There is no pain without some amount of pleasure. Life is composed of joys and miseries. They go hand-in-hand. Meditation is no exception. You will experience good times and bad times, ecstasies and frightening times.

我们之所以经常陷入人生困境,原因是:我们只懂不停地逃避问题,不停地追求欲望的满足。禅修为我们提供一个像实验室的环境,好让我们审视此症状(Syndrome), 从而制定出解决方案。禅修中出现的各种障碍、烦扰与问题,皆是可加利用并从中得益的,它们正是我们要加工的材料。没有快乐不会包含一定程度的痛苦,也没有痛苦不会包含一些快乐。人生就是由欢乐与苦难所组合而成,它们是手牵着手地走在一起的;禅修也不例外,你会经历到好与坏的时光,也会遇上令人狂喜与恐怖的时候。

So don't be surprised when you hit some experience that feels like a brick wall. Don't think you are special. Every seasoned meditator has had his own brick walls. They come up again and again. Just expect them and be ready to cope. Your ability to cope with trouble depends upon your attitude. If you can learn to regard these hassles as opportunities, as chances to develop in your practice, you'll make progress. Your ability to deal with some issue that arises in meditation will carry over into the rest of your life and allow you to smooth out the big issues that really bother you. If you try to avoid each piece of nastiness that arises in meditation, you are simply reinforcing the habit that has already made life seem so unbearable at times.

因此,当碰上似无路可走的禅修境况时,不要震惊,不要以为这是你的特殊遭遇,其实每一位经验丰富的禅修者都会各自遇上类似的情况,它们会一次又一次地出现,只须有此预防,随时准备应付即可。你应付困扰的能力取决于你的态度,如果你学懂视这些障碍、烦扰与问题为禅修发展的良机,你就会有进展。处理禅修问题的能力,自然会融入你的生活,助你解决烦扰的重大难题。如果你试图回避禅修中出现的每一个棘手问题,那只会强化那些已使人生颇为难耐的习惯而已。

It is essential to learn to confront the less pleasant aspects of existence. Our job as meditators is to learn to be patient with ourselves, to see ourselves in an unbiased way, complete with all our sorrows and inadequacies. We have to learn to be kind to ourselves. In the long run, avoiding unpleasantness is a very unkind thing to do to yourself. Paradoxically, kindness entails confronting unpleasantness when it arises. One popular human strategy for dealing with difficulty is autosuggestion: when something nasty pops up, you convince yourself it is pleasant rather than unpleasant. The Buddha's tactic is quite the reverse. Rather than hide it or disguise it, the Buddha's teaching urges you to examine it to death. Buddhism advises you not to implant feelings that you don't really have or avoid feelings that you do have. If you are miserable you are miserable; this is the reality, that is what is happening, so confront that. Look it square in the eye without flinching. When you are having a bad time, examine the badness, observe it mindfully, study the phenomenon and learn its mechanics. The way out of a trap is to study the trap itself, learn how it is built. You do this by taking the thing apart piece by piece. The trap can't trap you if it has been taken to pieces. The result is freedom.

学会面对生存中不如意的事情是重要的。作为禅修者,我们的工作是要学会容忍自己、公平地看待自己的所有苦恼与不足之处,要学会对自己友善。长远来说,回避不如意的事情是对自己很不友善的做法。在不如意事生起时能勇于面对它,虽似反常,其实是一种友善的表现。

一种众人皆知的处理困难的策略是「自我暗示」,例如:一件坏事突然发生了,你即用「塞翁失马,焉知非福」等语言来不断安慰自己。佛陀所教的战术与此相反,力劝我们与其去掩饰它、躲避它,不如去仔细、彻底地考察它,直至它消失为止。佛教主张:不可掺杂你实际上没有的感受,也不可回避你实际上有的感受。如果你很苦恼,这是现实正发生的事情,那就要面对它,正视它,不可畏惧退缩。在不幸的日子里,要检视不幸的本身,留意地观察它,研究那个现象,了解它的结构与运作方式。摆脱陷阱的方法,在于研究陷阱本身,了解它是怎么制造出来的。你要把它一件一件地拆开,被拆开的陷阱就不再能困住你了,结果是自由、解脱。

This point is essential, but it is one of the least understood aspects of Buddhist philosophy. Those who have studied Buddhism superficially are quick to conclude that it is a pessimistic set of teachings, always harping on unpleasant things like suffering, always urging us to confront the uncomfortable realities of pain, death and illness. Buddhist thinkers do not regard themselves as pessimists--quite the opposite, actually. Pain exists in the universe; some measure of it is unavoidable. Learning to deal with it is not pessimism, but a very pragmatic form of optimism. How would you deal with the death of your spouse? How would you feel if you lost your mother tomorrow? Or your sister or your closest friend? Suppose you lost your job, your savings, and the use of your hands, on the same day; could you face the prospect of spending the rest of your life in a wheelchair? How are you going to cope with the pain of terminal cancer if you contract it, and how will you deal with your own death, when that approaches? You may escape most of these misfortunes, but you won't escape all of them. Most of us lose friends and relatives at some time during our lives; all of us get sick now and then; at the very least you are going to die someday. You can suffer through things like that or you can face them openly--the choice is yours.

此点很重要,但很可惜,原来这是佛教思想中最鲜为人知、最鲜为人了解的其中一个方面。那些对佛教只有浅薄认识与研究的人,会很快妄下断语,说佛教是一套悲观的学说和教导,不停地说些令人不快的事情,还经常要人面对不适意的现实,如痛苦、病患、死亡等。事实刚好相反,佛教思想家并不认为自己是悲观主义者。世间苦痛,人生难免,学习应付苦痛实不算悲观,而是一种很务实的乐观主义。配偶过世时你怎样应付?如果明天你的母亲离世你的感受如何?如果是你的姊妹或你的亲密朋友离世,你又会怎样?又或者在同一日内,你失去了你的工作、你的储蓄、以及你的双腿,你能面对要在轮椅中渡过下半生的境况吗?如果不幸染上末期癌症,你怎么应付?另外,临近死亡时你如何面对它?你或许可以避免大部分上述的不幸,但你总不可能避免全部的。大部分人会在有生之年失去朋友及亲属,所有人都会久不久就生病,无论如何,你总会有死亡之一日的。你可以在这些不幸之中苦恼地渡过,你亦可坦率地、公然地面对它们,你是完全有选择的。

Pain is inevitable, suffering is not. Pain and suffering are two different animals. If any of these tragedies strike you in your present state of mind, you will suffer. The habit patterns that presently control your mind will lock you into that suffering and there will be no escape. A bit of time spent in learning alternatives to those habit patterns is time will-invested. Most human beings spend all their energies devising ways to increase their pleasure and decrease their pain. Buddhism does not advise that you cease this activity altogether. Money and security are fine. Pain should be avoided where possible. Nobody is telling you to give away all your possessions or seek out needless pain, but Buddhism does advise you to invest some of your time and energy in learning to deal with unpleasantness, because some pain is unavoidable.

痛苦(身苦)难免,烦恼(心苦)可消,因为,身苦与心苦是两种截然不同的事。如果你的心受到上述某些不幸所打击,你将会苦恼不堪;由于内心正受习气所控,你将被烦恼所困,不得解脱。故此,用一点时间去了解免受习气影响的方法是很值得的。大部分人都殚精竭力地设法离苦得乐,佛教并不主张你完全停止这些活动。金钱与安定是好的,痛苦亦应尽量避免,没有人在劝你要捐出自己的所有财产,或追求不必要的痛苦,不过,佛教确实有劝你用一点时间与精力,好好学习应付令你不快意的东西,因为有些痛苦是人生难免的。当你看到一辆卡车正向你冲来,就应不顾一切地躲开,同样道理,请用一点时间作禅修。学习好处理令你不适的东西,是武装自己去好好处理那无形卡车的唯一妙法。

When you see a truck bearing down on you, by all means jump out of the way. But spend some time in meditation, too. Learning to deal with discomfort is the only way you'll be ready to handle the truck you didn't see.

Problems arise in your practice. Some of them will be physical, some will be emotional, and some will be attitudinal. All of them are confrontable and each has its own specific response. All of them are opportunities to free yourself.

问题是会在禅修中出现的,其中有些属生理,有些属情绪,有些属态度。所有这些问题都是可面对的,而每一种也有其自己的独特回应,全部都是可令你解脱的良机。

Problem 1: Physical Pain

问题一:身体上的疼痛

Nobody likes pain, yet everybody has some sometime. It is one of life's most common experiences and is bound to arise in your meditation in one form or another. Handling pain is a two-stage process. First, get rid of the pain if possible or at least get rid of it as much as possible. Then, if some pain lingers, use it as an abject of meditation.

没有人会喜欢痛,但人人总会在某些时候有一些,这是人生普遍体验之一,而且,在禅修之中,痛一定会以某种形态出现的。

The first step is physical handling. Maybe the pain is an illness of one sort or another, a headache, fever, bruises or whatever. In this case, employ standard medical treatments before you sit down to meditate: take your medicine, apply your liniment, do whatever you ordinarily do. Then there are certain pains that are specific to the seated posture. If you never spend much time sitting cross-legged on the floor, there will be an adjustment period. Some discomfort is nearly inevitable. According to where the pain is, there are specific remedies. If the pain is in the leg or knees, check you pants. If they are tight or made of thick material, that could be the problem. Try to change it. Check your cushion, too. It should be about three inches in height when compressed. If the pain is around your waist, try loosening your belt. Loosen the waistband of your pants is that is necessary. If you experience pain in your lower back, your posture is probably at fault. Slouching will never be comfortable, so straighten up. Don't be tight or rigid, but do keep your spine erect. Pain in the neck or upper back has several sources. The first is improper hand position. Your hands should be resting comfortably in your lap. Don't pull them up to your waist. Relax your arms and your neck muscles. Don't let your head droop forward. Keep it up and aligned with the rest of the spine.

处理痛的过程可分两步:第一,如果可能的话,把痛完全消除,或把它减至最低;第二,假使仍有痛残留不散,就把它作为禅修的对象来处理。第一步是从身体上着手,痛也许来自某种疾病,例如:头痛、发烧、损伤、或是别的什么。在这种情况下,在你开始禅坐之前,最好先采用常规的医疗,例如:吃药、涂点药膏、或使用惯常的方法。

此外,有些疼痛是与特定的坐姿有关的,如果你从未试过长时间在地上盘腿而坐,那就需要一段适应期了。少许不舒服是会有的,那几乎是无法避免。针对身体不同地方的疼痛,可有不同的特别缓解方法,例如:若痛在小腿,可检查一下你的裤子,如果它是太紧或太厚,那可能是问题所在,试换一条裤子看看;坐垫也要检查一下,它应在压扁后有三吋高左右;如果疼痛在腰部周围,就要解松你的腰带;疼痛若在后腰下部,你的坐姿可能有些不对,如懒散地坐着一定不会舒服的,要挺直身子来坐,不宜太紧张或太僵硬,但要保持脊椎正直;颈部或后背的疼痛有几个来源,首先是不正当的手部姿势,你的双手应舒适地放在你大腿区域的上部,不可把它们拉近到你的腰部,放松你的手臂和颈部肌肉,头部不可向前垂下,要保持头部平正,且与脊椎垂直地排成一线。


After you have made all these various adjustments, you may find you still have some lingering pain. If that is the case, try step two. Make the pain your object of meditation. Don't jump up and down and get excited. Just observe the pain mindfully. When the pain becomes demanding, you will find it pulling your attention off the breath. Don't fight back. Just let your attention slide easily over onto the simple sensation. Go into the pain fully. Don't block the experience. Explore the feeling. Get beyond your avoiding reaction and go into the pure sensations that lie below that.

如上述般调整之后,你也许还有些疼痛残留未散,那么,就要试行第二步了,即把疼痛作为你的禅修对象。不要突然起身,也不要激动,只须专心地观察着它。当疼痛变得剧烈时,你会发觉,你的注意力已被它从气息(原本的禅修对象)拉到它那里去了,不可还击,只须让注意力轻易地滑动至那简单感觉之上,然后全然地进入那疼痛之中,不可阻挠那时的体验,要探索那个时候的感受,要超越你的逃避反应,还要进入那感受之中,体验着那感受里面的单纯感觉。

You will discover that there are two things present. The first is the simple sensation--pain itself. Second is your resistance to that sensation. Resistance reaction is partly mental and partly physical. The physical part consists of tensing the muscles in and around the painful area. Relax those muscles. Take them one by one and relax each one very thoroughly. This step alone probably diminishes the pain significantly. Then go after the mental side of the resistance. Just as you are tensing physically, you are also tensing psychologically. You are clamping down mentally on the sensation of pain, trying to screen it off and reject it from consciousness. The rejection is a wordless, "I don't like this feeling" or "go away" attitude. It is very subtle. But it is there, and you can find it if you really look. Locate it and relax that, too.

你会发现两样东西:第一样是单纯的感觉── 疼痛本身,第二样是你对那感觉的抵抗。抵抗反应有部分属心理、有部分属生理,例如:围绕疼痛区域的肌肉紧张属生理那部分,放松那里的肌肉,将它们逐一地彻底放松,也许此步骤本身已把疼痛大大减轻。接着便可处理心理上的抗拒了,就像你有生理上的紧张一样,你也会有心理上的紧张,你会在心理上压制疼痛的感觉,努力把它从意识之中排挤出去。此种排挤是一种无言的「我不喜欢这种感受」或「走开」的态度,此心微妙细致,你若认真视察就能发现,找到它后就把它一并放松。

That last part is more subtle. There are really no human words to describe this action precisely. The best way to get a handle on it is by analogy. Examine what you did to those tight muscles and transfer that same action over to the mental sphere; relax the mind in the same way that you relax the body. Buddhism recognizes that the body and mind are tightly linked. This is so true that many people will not see this as a two-step procedure. For them to relax the body is to relax the mind and vice versa. These people will experience the entire relaxation, mental and physical, as a single process. In any case, just let go completely till you awareness slows down past that barrier which you yourself erected. It was a gap, a sense of distance between self and others. It was a borderline between 'me' and 'the pain'. Dissolve that barrier, and separation vanishes. You slow down into that sea of surging sensation and you merge with the pain. You become the pain. You watch its ebb and flow and something surprising happens. It no longer hurts. Suffering is gone. Only the pain remains, an experience, nothing more. The 'me' who was being hurt has gone. The result is freedom from pain.

最后那部分是较难捉摸的,也是无法用语言文字作精密的描述,最好的掌握方法可能是用类比法。试检查一下你处理紧张肌肉的办法,然后转用于心理(精神)上的领域。佛教认为身心是紧密联系的,此联系的紧密程度令很多人皆察觉不到此过程有两个步骤,对他们来说,放松身体即放松内心,放松内心即放松身体,因此,他们体验到的身心放松只是一个过程而已。无论如何,要全然放下,让觉知心慢慢地超越你自己竖立的障碍(内心的抗拒)── 一种自我与别人的距离感,一条「自我」与「疼痛」的分界线,若能销毁那障碍,间隔即可消失。你要慢慢潜入波涛汹涌的感觉之海里面,与疼痛融合为一,你变成感觉本身,观察着它的减退与流动,跟着,令人惊奇的事情发生了,它不再干扰你,烦恼亦在瞬间消失,只有痛的感受本身,没有「我」在受伤害,你结果便从疼痛中得到解脱。

This is an incremental process. In the beginning, you can expect to succeed with small pains and be defeated by big ones. Like most of our skills, it grows with practice. The more you practice, the bigger the pain you can handle.

这是一个渐进式的过程。开始时,你可战胜小痛但输给大痛,像其他技艺一样,它会随着练习而进步的,你越多练习就越能应付更强大的疼痛。

Please understand fully. There is no masochism being advocated here. Self- mortification is not the point.This is an exercise in awareness, not in sadism. If the pain becomes excruciating, go ahead and move, but move slowly and mindfully. Observe your movements. See how it feels to move. Watch what it does to the pain. Watch the pain diminish. Try not to move too much though. The less you move, the easier it is to remain fully mindful. New meditators sometimes say they have trouble remaining mindful when pain is present. This difficulty stems from a misunderstanding. These students are conceiving mindfulness as something distinct from the experience of pain. It is not. Mindfulness never exists by itself. It always has some object and one object is as good as another. Pain is a mental state. You can be mindful of pain just as you are mindful of breathing.

请充分了解,这里不是鼓吹「自虐或苦行」,这是一种「觉察力」的锻炼,不是「施虐狂(Sadism)」的行为。如果疼痛变得非常剧烈难忍,请尽管移动身体,但要缓慢且专心地去做,留意观察你的动作,看看移动时是怎么样的感受,留心观察那动作对疼痛的效应,并且注意着疼痛的减轻。不过,可不要移动得太多,因为,移动得越少,则越容易保持充分的静观。初学者有时会说,他们在疼痛时无法保持静观;其实这种困难是由于误解所致,这些学员以为静观是有别于疼痛感受的东西,这是不对的。静观从来就不可能单独存在,它总是要有对象的,任何对象皆可,疼痛是一种心态,你是可以像静观呼吸一样来静观疼痛的。

The rules we covered in Chapter 4 apply to pain just as they apply to any other mental state. You must be careful not to reach beyond the sensation and not to fall short of it. Don't add anything to it, and don't miss any part of it. Don't muddy the pure experience with concepts or pictures or discursive thinking. And keep your awareness right in the present time, right with the pain, so that you won't miss its beginning or its end. Pain not viewed in the clear light of mindfulness gives rise to emotional reactions like fear, anxiety, or anger. If it is properly viewed, we have no such reaction. It will be just sensation, just simple energy. Once you have learned this technique with physical pain, you can then generalize it in the rest of your life. You can use it on any unpleasant sensation. What works on pain will work on anxiety or chronic depression. This technique is one of life's most useful and generalizable skills. It is patience.

第四章所述的规则适用于任何心态,对于疼痛也不例外。不过必须小心,静观感觉时不要过犹不及,不要加油添醋,不要有所遗漏,更不可以概念、图像、或散漫无关的思想等弄脏那纯粹的感受经验。要保持觉知于当下与疼痛之中,这样才不会遗漏它的开始与结束。疼痛若不能被清楚地观照(静观),就会生起恐惧、焦虑或愤怒等情绪反应;若能被适当地观照,那些反应就不会生起,而只有感觉本身── 单纯的能量。一旦你学懂这种处理疼痛的方法,就可以把这方法推广,应用到你人生的其他方面,你可用于任何不适意的感觉,事实上,适用于疼痛的方法,对焦虑或长期的抑郁症也是有效的。这是人生最有用、最可普及的技巧之一,我们称之为「忍耐」。

Problem 2: Legs Going To Sleep

问题二:腿脚麻木

It is very common for beginners to have their legs fall asleep or go numb during meditation. They are simply not accustomed to the cross-legged posture. Some people get very anxious about this. They feel they must get up and move around. A few are completely convinced that they will get gangrene from lack of circulation. Numbness in the leg is nothing to worry about. it is caused by nerve-pinch, not by lack of circulation. You can't damage the tissues of your legs by sitting. So relax. When your legs fall asleep in meditation, just mindfully observe the phenomenon. Examine what it feels like. It may be sort of uncomfortable, but it is not painful unless you tense up. Just stay calm and watch it. It does not matter if your legs go numb and stay that way for the whole period. After you have meditated for some time, that numbness gradually will disappear. Your body simply adjusts to daily practice. Then you can sit for very long sessions with no numbness whatever.

初学者在禅坐时,腿脚发生麻木是常有的事情,那是由于他们对禅坐的坐姿不适应所致。有些人对此十分担忧,他们觉得非要站起来活动一下不可,有少数人更相信,由于血液循环受阻,他们身体的某部分会坏死。腿脚麻木实无须担心,它是神经受压而引起的捏痛,而非由于血液循环受阻,此坐姿是不会损害你的腿脚组织的,因此,不要紧张,放松一下吧!如果你的腿脚在禅坐时麻木,只须留意地观察着此现象即可,试审察一下那感觉是怎么样的,也许那只是一种不适的感觉而已,你如果不紧张,它还不算痛苦,只管保持平静和观察着它即可。就算腿脚在整个禅坐中持续麻木也不打紧,继续禅修一段日子,麻木自会慢慢消失的,你的身体是会随着日常的修习而自动调适的,不久之后,你就算坐上很长时间,也不会再有麻木的现象出现了。

Problem 3: Odd Sensations

问题三:奇异的感觉

People experience all manner of varied phenomena in meditation. Some people get itches. Others feel tingling, deep relaxation, a feeling of lightness or a floating sensation. You may feel yourself growing or shrinking or rising up in the air. Beginners often get quite excited over such sensations. As relaxation sets in, the nervous system simply begins to pass sensory signals more efficiently. Large amounts of previously blocked sensory data can pour through, giving rise to all manner of unique sensations. It does not signify anything in particular. It is just sensation. So simply employ the normal technique. Watch it come up and watch it pass away. Don't get involved.

在禅修中,人们会体验到各式各样的现象,例如感到痕痒、轻微的刺痛、深度的松弛、身轻或浮动等感觉。你也许会感到自己在膨胀、缩小或在空中升起来。初学者大多因此而激动兴奋,不用担心,在修习初期,你是不太可能会升空而起的。在禅修之中,当放松现象出现时,神经系统开始更有效地传递感觉讯息,大量以前受阻的感觉讯息得以轻易流通,从而产生了各式各样的奇异感觉,那并不意味什么,只是感觉而已。因此,只管如常地运用此技巧即可;即观察着它的生起、观察着它的消失,不要介入。

Problem 4: Drowsiness

问题四:昏沉(昏昏欲睡)

It is quite common to experience drowsiness during meditation. You become very calm and relaxed. That is exactly what is supposed to happen. Unfortunately, we ordinarily experience this lovely state only when we are falling asleep, and we associate it with that process. So naturally, you begin to drift off. When you find this happening, apply your mindfulness to the state of drowsiness itself. Drowsiness has certain definite characteristics. It does certain things to your thought process. Find out what. It has certain body feelings associated with it. Locate those.

在禅修中感到昏沉是常有的事。你变得非常平静与放松,那正是禅修的意料中事,不幸的是,我们通常只有在睡着时,才会体验到这种美好状态,而我们就把它与那过程联系在一起,于是便自然慢慢入睡了。当你发现这种情况时,就要立即静观昏沉本身。昏沉有一些明显特性,它会影响你的心念,试把它们找出来;它与某些身体感觉有关,试找出它们的位置。这种探究性的觉察是昏沉的最好对治方法,会令它很快消失的。如果不成功,你的昏沉很可能与身体有关,那就要找出原因来处理了。如果你禅坐前吃得很饱,那可能是做成昏沉的原因。因此,快将禅坐前要少吃一些,或者,在饱餐一顿后要等上一个小时后才可禅坐。还有,不可忽视明显的因由,如整天辛劳工作后才禅坐,自然疲倦嗜睡了;又如你前晚睡眠不足,就先要处理好身体的需要才好禅坐。不要向昏沉屈服,保持清醒与警觉,因为昏沉与禅修时的心意集中是截然不同的两种体验。你在昏沉中是无法得到崭新领悟的,它们只有在禅修中才可以得到。如你真的昏昏欲睡,可以深吸一口气,然后屏息静气,越久越好,跟着慢慢地呼出来,如是地重复,直至你的身体发暖与昏沉消失为止,之后,便可返回来静观气息。

This inquisitive awareness is the direct opposite of drowsiness, and will evaporate it. If it does not, then you should suspect a physical cause of your sleepiness. Search that out and handle it. If you have just eaten large meal, that could be the cause. It is best to eat lightly before you meditate. Or wait an hour after a big meal. And don't overlook the obvious either. If you have been out loading bricks all day, you are naturally going to be tired. The same is true if you only got a few hours sleep the night before. Take care of your body's physical needs. Then meditate. Do not give in to sleepiness. Stay awake and mindful, for sleep and meditative concentration are two diametrically opposite experiences. You will not gain any new insight from sleep, but only from meditation. If you are very sleepy then take a deep breath and hold it as long as you can. Then breathe out slowly. Take another deep breath again, hold it as long as you can and breathe out slowly. Repeat this exercise until your body warms up and sleepiness fades away. Then return to your breath.

Problem 5: Inability To Concentrate

问题五:无法集中心意

An overactive, jumping attention is something that everybody experiences from time to time. It is generally handled by techniques presented in the chapter on distractions. You should also be informed, however, that there are certain external factors which contribute to this phenomenon. And these are best handled by simple adjustments in your schedule. Mental images are powerful entities. They can remain in the mind for long periods. All of the storytelling arts are direct manipulation of such material, and to the extent the writer has done his job well, the characters and images presented will have a powerful and lingering effect on the mind. If you have been to the best movie of the year, the meditation which follows is going to be full of those images. If you are halfway through the scariest horror novel you ever read, your meditation is going to be full of monsters. So switch the order of events. Do your meditation first. Then read or go to the movies.

心念有时过度活跃,人人皆会遇到,一般的对治方法会在后面有关「处理分心」的章节中阐释。然而,有几个产生这现象的外因,也应在这里告知你们,而最好的处理方法是调整你的时间表。心理影像是很有力量的东西,它们能长时间停留在你的心间,讲故事的艺术只是直接运用这些材料,如果作家运用了得,人物的性格、影像就会在人们的心中产生有力和难于磨灭的效果。如果你在禅坐前刚看过今年的最佳影片,禅坐时心中将充满影片中的人物与影像。如果你看了半部非常恐怖的小说之后禅坐,禅坐时自然充满妖魔鬼怪。因此,要把上述的次序调换,即先禅坐,后看电影或看书。

Another influential factor is your own emotional state. If there is some real conflict in your life, that agitation will carry over into meditation. Try to resolve your immediate daily conflicts before meditation when you can. Your life will run smoother, and you won't be pondering uselessly in your practice. But don't use this advice as a way to avoid meditation. Sometimes you can't resolve every issue before you sit. Just go ahead and sit anyway. Use your meditation to let go of all the egocentric attitudes that keep you trapped within your own limited viewpoint. Your problems will resolve much more easily thereafter. And then there are those days when it seems that the mind will never rest, but your can't locate any apparent cause. Remember the cyclic alternation we spoke of earlier. Meditation goes in cycles. You have good days and you have bad days.

另外一个影响因素是你的情绪状态。如果生活中有些矛盾或冲突未获解决,那内心的激动是会带到禅修之中的。应尽可能在禅坐前了结当日的矛盾冲突,那么,生活自然顺畅,禅修时也不致满脑子思想。但是,切不可以此建议作为逃避禅修的藉口。有时,你是无法在禅坐前把所有问题都完全解决的,此时不要理会什么了,只管进行禅坐吧!就用禅坐来放下你以自我为中心的、有局限性的观点与态度,禅修之后,问题往往会较易解决。另外,有些日子,内心好像一刻也停不下来,而你也找不到明显的原因。记得我们提过的周期改变吗?禅修也会有周期性的,你会有好日子,亦会有坏日子的。

Vipassana meditation is primarily an exercise in awareness. Emptying the mind is not as important as being mindful of what the mind is doing. If you are frantic and you can't do a thing to stop it, just observe. It is all you. The result will be one more step forward in your journey of self-exploration. Above all, don't get frustrated over the nonstop chatter of your mind. That babble is just one more thing to be mindful of.

内观禅主要是觉察力的锻鍊,令心留意觉察心的当下活动比令心空寂更为重要。如果心意狂乱而你又无法阻止时,就观察着它好了,它全是你的东西,结果你会在自我探索的旅程中,又向前迈进一步了。至为重要的是,不要因为内心的不停思绪、自言自语等而沮丧,那些东西(叽哩咕噜的内心话语)只不过是我们要留意观察的另一样东西而已。

Problem 6: Boredom

问题六:厌烦

It is difficult to imagine anything more inherently boring than sitting still for an hour with nothing to do but feel the air going in and out of your nose. You are going to run into boredom repeatedly in your meditation. Everybody does. Boredom is a mental state and should be treated as such. A few simple strategies will help you to cope.

坐着一小时,当中什么也不做,只感受着气息的进出,还有比这做法更厌烦的事吗?很难想像吧?在禅修中,你会屡屡感到厌烦,人人都会的。厌烦只是一种心态,应作如是理解。有几个简单办法可帮你去应付它的:

Tactic A: Re-establish true mindfulness

方法一:重新提起可靠的静观力

If the breath seems an exceedingly dull thing to observe over and over, you may rest assured of one thing: You have ceased to observe the process with true mindfulness. Mindfulness is never boring. Look again. Don't assume that you know what breath is. Don't take it for granted that you have already seen everything there is to see. If you do, you are conceptualizing the process. You are not observing its living reality. When you are clearly mindful of breath or indeed anything else, it is never boring. Mindfulness looks at everything with the eyes of a child, with the sense of wonder. Mindfulness sees every second as if it were the first and the only second in the universe. So look again.

如果不断觉得观察气息是件十分厌烦的事,有一点可以肯定,你已失去可靠的静观力来观察呼吸的过程了。静观从来都不会令人厌烦的,再观察一下!不要假设你已知道什么是呼吸,不要想当然地以为你已看遍所有要看的东西,如果这样做的话,你是在概念化那个过程,而不是在观察着那活生生的现实了。当你清楚地觉察着呼吸或任何现象时,是绝不会感厌烦的,静观就好像一个小孩,以充满好奇的眼光来看待任何事物,静观看待每一刻的态度是:

Tactic B: Observe your mental state

方法二:观察你的心态

Look at your state of boredom mindfully. What is boredom? Where is boredom? What does it feel like? What are its mental component? Does it have any physical feeling? What does it do to your thought process? Take a fresh look at boredom, as if you have never experienced that state before.

留心地观察你的厌烦心态,什么是厌烦?厌烦在哪里?你感到它是怎么样的?它由什么心理成分所构成?它是否有任何肉体上的感受?它对你的思想过程有什么作用?试用一新鲜的眼光来看待厌烦,就好像你从未体验过那种心态一样。

Problem 7: Fear

问题七:恐惧

States of fear sometimes arise during meditation for no discernible reason. It is a common phenomenon, and there can be a number of causes. You may be experiencing the effect of something repressed long ago. Remember, thoughts arise first in the unconscious. The emotional contents of a thought complex often leach through into your conscious awareness long before the thought itself surfaces. If you sit through the fear, the memory itself may bubble up where you can endure it.

在禅修中,有时会出现莫名奇妙的恐惧,这是常有的现象,原因有多种:(一)你可能经验到很久之前被压抑事件的后果,请紧记,念头首先是在「无意识」中冒起的,在念头被觉察到之前,它的情绪部分已有一段长时间由「无意识」过滤到意识之中了。如果你能坐至恐惧消失为止,那个记忆气泡本身可能已在你的忍耐限度内升出水面、消失了。

Or you may be dealing directly with that fear which we all fear: 'fear of the unknown'. At some point in your meditation career, you will be struck with the seriousness of what you are actually doing. You are tearing down the wall of illusion you have always used to explain life to yourself and to shield yourself from the intense flame of reality. You are about to meet ultimate truth face to face. That is scary. But it has to be dealt with eventually. Go ahead and dive right in.

(二)你可能要直接面对所有人都会有的恐惧── 对未知的恐惧。禅修至某一阶段时,你会对自己正从事之活动的严重性感到震撼,你正在拆毁那堵幻有之墙,而它正是你惯常用来向自己解释生命、用来保护自己免于受现实烈火所伤害的东西。你即将和现实面对面相遇了,那是令人恐惧的事,但终究是要面对的,继续前进!不必犹疑,马上投入吧!

A third possibility: the fear that your are feeling may be self- generated. It may be arising out of unskillful concentration. You may have set an unconscious program to 'examine what comes up.' Thus when a frightening fantasy arises, concentration locks onto it and the fantasy feeds on the energy of your attention and grows. The real problem here is that mindfulness is weak. If mindfulness was strongly developed, it would notice this switch of attention as soon as it occurred and handle the situation in the usual manner. Not matter what the source of your fear, mindfulness is the cure. Observe the emotional reactions that come along and know them for what they are. Stand aside from the process and don't get involved. Treat the whole dynamic as if you were an interested bystander. Most importantly, don't fight the situation. Don't try to repress the memories or the feelings or the fantasies. Just step out of the way and let the whole mess bubble up and flow past. It can't hurt you. It is just memory. It is only fantasy. It is nothing but fear.

(三)你感到的恐惧可能是自己造成的,也许是你的不善巧关注所产生的。你可能在「无意识」中设立了一个程序── 「检查一下有什么出现」,结果,当可怕的幻想(Fantasy)出现时,注意力就被锁定在它上面,幻想得到注意力提供的能量,自会不断增强。这里的真正问题在于(对主要禅修对象的)留意观察能力的不足,如果留意观察能力已足够强劲,这种注意力的转移,一出现已被它觉察到,并且以常法妥善处理了。无论你的恐惧源自什么,留意觉察都可以把它治愈。要精确、如实地观察恐惧,不要执着它,只是观看着它的生起与增长,研究一下它的效应,看看它如何影响你的感受、以及如何影响你的身体。当发觉自己被可怕的幻想困扰时,只须专心地观察着它们即可。看到图像时就视之为图像,看到记忆时就视之为记忆,观察伴随而来的各种情绪反应,如实地了知它们,站在过程的旁边观察,不要介入,要让自己好像是一个感兴趣的旁观者一样,来对待整个动态情况。最重要的是,不要与情境斗争,不要尝试抑制记忆、感受或幻想,只须置身事外,让它们全都冒出来、流过去即可。它是不会伤害你的,它只是记忆,它只是幻想,它只不过是恐惧之心而已。

When you let it run its course in the arena of conscious attention, it won't sink back into the unconscious. It won't come back to haunt you later. It will be gone for good.

在有意识的观察下,当你让恐惧无阻地表演完毕后,它将不会再度下沉到「无意识」里,更不会再出来缠住你,它将永远地一去不返。

Problem 8: Agitation

问题八:烦躁不安

Restlessness is often a cover-up for some deeper experience taking place in the unconscious. We humans are great at repressing things. Rather than confronting some unpleasant thought we experience, we try to bury it. We won't have to deal with the issue. Unfortunately, we usually don't succeed, at least not fully. We hide the thought, but the mental energy we use to cover it up sits there and boils. The result is that sense of uneasiness which we call agitation or restlessness. There is nothing you can put your finger on. But you don't feel at ease. You can't relax. When this uncomfortable state arises in mediation, just observe it. Don't let it rule you. Don't jump up and run off. And don't struggle with it and try to make it go away. Just let it be there and watch it closely. Then the repressed material will eventually surface and you will find out what you have been worrying about.

烦躁不安的心境,往往是「无意识」为自己内部感受的一种掩饰手段。我们人类很善于压抑,不愿面对令人不快的心念,往往选择把它掩藏起来,以为从此就可无须处理那问题了。不幸的是,我们通常都不会成功,至少不能完全成功。我们把心念隐藏,可是,掩藏所用的心理能量还在那里,且在沸腾。结果就出现了那种我们叫烦乱不安的不自在感觉。你弄不清楚是什么原因,总之,你就是觉得不自在、无法放松。当这种不适的感觉在禅修中出现时,只须观察着它即可。不要让它支配你,不要跳起来逃走,不要与它争斗,也不要试图去赶走它,就让它在那里,只须密切地观察着它即可,那么,被压抑的东西终究会浮现出来,到时你便可知道自己一直在担忧什么了。

The unpleasant experience that you have been trying to avoid could be almost anything: Guilt, greed or problems. It could be a low-grade pain or subtle sickness or approaching illness. Whatever it is, let it arise and look at it mindfully. If you just sit still and observe your agitation, it will eventually pass. Sitting through restlessness is a little breakthrough in your meditation career. It will teach you much. You will find that agitation is actually a rather superficial mental state. It is inherently ephemeral. It comes and it goes. It has no real grip on you at all. Here again the rest of your life will profit.

你一直想逃避的令你不快的感受,差不多可以是任何事情:如内疚、贪欲或其他问题;也可以是轻微的疼痛、难知的隐疾、或即将到来的病患。不管是什么,就让它呈现出来和留意地观察着它即可。如果你只坐着不动和观察着你的烦躁不安,它终究会消逝而去的。能安坐不动直至你的烦躁不安完全消逝,这行动本身实是你禅修生涯中的一个小小突破。它教懂你很多事情,你会发现,烦躁不安其实是一种颇为表面的心理状态,它天性命短,一来即走,不会久留,对你根本没有真正的控制力。

Problem 9: Trying Too Hard

问题九:努力过度

Advanced meditators are generally found to be pretty jovial men and women. They possess that most valuable of all human treasures, a sense of humor. It is not the superficial witty repartee of the talk show host. It is a real sense of humor. They can laugh at their own human failures. They can chuckle at personal disasters. Beginners in meditation are often much too serious for their own good. So laugh a little. It is important to learn to loosen up in your session, to relax into your meditation. You need to learn to flow with whatever happens. You can't do that if you are tensed and striving, taking it all so very, very seriously. New meditators are often overly eager for results. They are full of enormous and inflated expectations. They jump right in and expect incredible results in no time flat. They push. They tense. They sweat and strain, and it is all so terribly, terribly grim and solemn. This state of tension is the direct antithesis of mindfulness. So naturally they achieve little. Then they decide that this meditation is not so exciting after all. It did not give them what they wanted. They chuck it aside. It should be pointed out that you learn about meditation only by meditating. You learn what meditation is all about and where it leads only through direct experience of the thing itself. Therefore the beginner does not know where he is headed because he has developed little sense of where his practice is leading.

你会发觉,禅修老手一般都是很快乐的人,他们拥有人类最宝贵的财富── 幽默感。它不是媒体节目主持人的那种肤浅的诙谐妙语,它是一种真正的幽默感。他们能够嘲笑自己本身的人性缺憾,他们能够面对个人的灾难而轻声发笑。禅修新手往往为了成就而过分认真。因此,笑一笑吧!在禅修中学会间中放松一下、缓和片刻是重要的。无论任何事情发生,你都要学会客观地去观察它们。如果你在紧张、在奋斗,把一切都看得那么非常认真,那是无法做得到的。

禅修新手往往因求胜心切而过分认真,他们充满巨大的、夸张的期望,他们迅即投入,希望花短暂时间就可得到令人难以置信的结果,他们奋力推进、紧张、流汗、竭尽全力,这一切都那么地非常严肃、非常庄重。这种紧张状态刚好与留意觉察相反,他们的成就自然很少,接着,他们认为禅修毕竟没有刺激,不能满足要求,于是就把禅修轻易地抛弃了。应该指出的是,只有在禅修实践之中你才能知道什么是禅修,你想知道禅修到底是怎么一回事,它的目的何在,只有靠自己去直接体验它才行。因此,禅修新手之所以不知方向,乃因为他们的实践不足以培养到充分的方向感出来。

The novice's expectation is inherently unrealistic and uninformed. As a newcomer to meditation, he or she would expect all the wrong things, and those expectations do you no good at all. They get in the way. Trying too hard leads to rigidity and unhappiness, to guilt and self-condemnation. When you are trying too hard, your effort becomes mechanical and that defeats mindfulness before it even gets started. You are well-advised to drop all that. Drop your expectations and straining. Simply meditate with a steady and balanced effort. Enjoy your mediation and don't load yourself down with sweat and struggles. Just be mindful. The meditation itself will take care of the future.

新手的期待本质上是不实际的和愚昧的,作为禅修新手,你是会生起各式各样的错误期待的,它们对你毕竟没有好处,只会造成妨碍。过分努力会产生僵硬与不愉快、内疚与自责等。如果用功过度,你的努力会变得机械化,使留意觉察在生起前便遭打击。你应有见识地把它们统统放下,放下你的期待与过分努力,只简单地以稳定而平衡的努力禅修,享受你的禅修,不用汗流浃背地搏斗来加重自己的负担,只管留意觉察,禅修本身自会对你的前途有所安排。

Problem 10: Discouragement

问题十:丧失信心(气馁)

The direct upshot of pushing too hard is frustration. You are in a state of tension. You get nowhere. You realize you are not making the progress you expected, so you get discouraged. You feel like a failure. It is all a very natural cycle, but a totally avoidable one. The source is striving after unrealistic expectations. Nevertheless, it is a common enough syndrome and, in spite of all the best advice, you may find it happening to you. There is a solution. If you find yourself discouraged, just observe your state of mind clearly. Don't add anything to it. Just watch it. A sense of failure is only another ephemeral emotional reaction. If you get involved, it feeds on your energy and grows. If you simply stand aside and watch it, it passes away.

过度用功的最后结果会令人丧失信心。因为,你长时处于一种紧张状态,你没有任何进展,你发觉自己没有取得预期的进步,于是就会气馁、失去信心,你感觉好像失败了。这是一个非常自然的循环过程,但却是可以完全避免的。根源是追求不切实际的目标。然而,那是一个十分普遍的综合症状,尽管已有很多一流的忠告和劝谕,它还是会发生在你身上的。这里有一个良策,假使你发觉自己心灰意冷时,只管清楚地观察你当下的心态,不可对它添加任何东西,只是观察着它即可。挫败感只不过是另一个短暂的情绪反应,如果你介入其中,它就会得到能量而增长;如果你能超然地旁观着它,它自然会消逝而去。

If you are discouraged over your perceived failure in meditation, that is especially easy to deal with. You feel you have failed in your practice. You have failed to be mindful. Simply become mindful of that sense of failure. You have just re-established your mindfulness with that single step. The reason for your sense of failure is nothing but memory. There is no such thing as failure in meditation. There are setbacks and difficulties. But there is no failure unless you give up entirely. Even if you spend twenty solid years getting nowhere, you can be mindful at any second you choose to do so. It is your decision. Regretting is only one more way of being unmindful. The instant that you realize that you have been unmindful, that realization itself is an act of mindfulness. So continue the process. Don't get sidetracked in an emotional reaction.

如果你在禅修中因感到失败而气馁,那就特别容易处理了。你感到禅修失败,那是因为你疏忽了静观,只须立即留意觉察那个失败感即可,这一步正好重新提起你的静观力。造成失败的感觉,全因一个记忆而已。禅修是没有所谓失败的,有的只是退步与困难;除非你完全放弃,否则是不会有失败的。即使你禅修了整整二十年仍一无所获,你只须在任何一刻选择静观,还是可以立即静观起来的,一切全在乎你的决定;后悔只不过是另一种失念(unmindful)情况,你若在一瞬间了解到自己失念,那了解本身就是一个静观活动。因此,继续上述的过程吧!不可因情绪反应而偏离正道。

Problem 11: Resistance To Meditation

问题十一:抗拒禅修

There are times when you don't feel like meditating. The very idea seems obnoxious. Missing a single practice session is scarcely important, but it very easily becomes a habit. It is wiser to push on through the resistance. Go sit anyway. Observe this feeling of aversion. In most cases it is a passing emotion, a flash in the pan that will evaporate right in front of your eyes. Five minutes after you sid down it is gone. In other cases it is due to some sour mood that day, and it lasts longer. Still, it does pass. And it is better to get rid of it in twenty or thirty minutes of meditation than to carry it around with you and let it ruin the rest of your day. Another time, resistance may be due to some difficulty you are having with the practice itself. You may or may not know what that difficulty is. If the problem is known, handle it by one of the techniques given in this book. Once the problem is gone, resistance will be gone. If the problem is unknown, then you are going to have to tough it out. Just sit through the resistance and observe that mindfully. When it has finally run its course, it will pass. Then the problem causing it will probably bubble up in its wake, and you can deal with that.

有些时候你不想进行禅修,这想法看来颇令人不快。禅修少一次好像不太紧要,但很易会成为一种习惯,较明智的做法是,勉为其难地继续禅修,总之就去坐,观察此厌恶感受,在大多数情况下,它只是一种飞逝而去的情绪、在你眼前昙花一现的闪光而已。只须坐上五分钟左右,它就会消声匿迹。在其他情况下,由于当天的厌烦情绪,它会逗留多一点时间才散。总之,它仍是会走的;况且,用上二、三十分钟的禅修去消除它,总比整天带着它来破坏自己的心情好。有时候抗拒的出现,是由于在禅修上碰到一些困难,你可能知道,亦可能不知道那困难是什么。如果知道问题所在,就按本书所述的方法来处理。一旦问题消失,抗拒的情绪也会自然消失的。如果不知道问题所在,那就要不畏缩地、坚决地忍受它,直至它消失为止。只管继续观察着那抗拒情绪,一直坐至它完全消失为止。待它按常规发展完毕,它自会消失的。跟着,产生它的根本原因就会随即自然浮现出来,那就好处理了。

If resistance to meditation is a common feature of your practice, then you should suspect some subtle error in your basic attitude. Meditation is not a ritual conducted in a particular posture. It is not a painful exercise, or period of enforced boredom. And it is not some grim, solemn, obligation. Meditation is mindfulness. it is a new way of seeing and it is a form of play. Meditation is your friend. Come to regard it as such and resistance will wash away like smoke on a summer breeze.

如果抗拒情绪在你禅修中持续地经常发生,那就要怀疑本身的基本态度是否有一些隐微的错误了。禅修不是一种以特殊姿势来进行的宗教仪式,它不是一种痛苦的修炼,也不是要在强制下渡过一段厌烦的时光。它不是一种要板起面孔来完成的义务。禅修是留意观察,它是一种观看事物的新方法,也是游戏的一种方式。禅修是你的朋友,若能用此态度去对待禅修,你的抗拒情绪自可烟消云散。

If you try all these possibilities and the resistance remains, then there may be a problem. There can be certain metaphysical snags that a meditator runs into which go far beyond the scope of this book. It is not common for new meditators to hit these, but it can happen. Don't give up. Go get help. Seek out qualified teachers of the Vipassana style of meditation and ask them to help you resolve the situation. Such people exist for exactly that purpose.

如果试过上述所有的可能性后,抗拒情绪仍然存在,那就可能是个问题了。禅修者可能碰到某些超自然的障碍,而这是远远超出本书所能讨论的范围。这问题在初学者中是罕见的,却是有可能发生的。不要放弃,去寻求帮助,找一位够水准的、修习内观禅的大师,请求他来帮你走出困境,这些人正是为了此目的而生存于世上的。

Problem 12: Stupor or Dullness

问题十二:昏沉迟钝

We have already discussed the sinking mind phenomenon. But there is a special route to that state you should watch for. Mental dullness can result as an unwanted byproduct of deepening concentration. As your relaxation deepens, muscles loosen and nerve transmission changes. This produces a very calm and light feeling in the body. you feel very still and somewhat divorced from the body. this is a very pleasant state and at first your concentration is quite good, nicely centered on the breath. As it continues, however, the pleasant feeling intensify and they distract your attention from the breath. You start to really enjoy that state and your mindfulness goes way down. Your attention winds up scattered, drifting listlessly through vague clouds of bliss. The result is a very unmindful state, sort of an ecstatic stupor. The cure, of course, is mindfulness. Mindfully observe these phenomena and they will dissipate. When blissful feelings arise accept them. There is no need to avoid them. Don't get wrapped up in them. They are physical feelings, so treat them as such. Observe feelings as feelings. Observe dullness as dullness. Watch them rise and watch them pass. Don't get involved.

我们已(在问题四中)讨论过心的昏沉现象了,但要注意,有另一特殊途径也会进入那种状态:内心的昏沉迟钝可以是定力加深时之不想要的副产品。随着你的松弛加深,肌肉会放松,脑神经的传导亦会改变,这会在身体产生一种非常平静和轻盈的感觉,你感到非常宁静,而且有点似与身体脱离的感觉,这是美好的感受,它很好地集中在呼吸之上。可是,再继续下去时,那适意的感受会增强,从而令你分心,注意力离开了呼吸,你开始真的享受那境界了,你的静观力走下坡了。你的注意力终于涣散了,在迷糊不清的禅悦云雾中懒洋洋地漂移,结果便产生了此种缺乏静观力的状态,一种类似心醉神迷的昏沉迟钝。它的对治方法当然是静观,专心地观察这些现象,它们就会消散的。当那些迷人的感受生起时,要接受它们,不用去回避它们,不要被它们缠住,它们只是生理上的感受,因此,应就此事实去处理它们。如其为感受则观察其为感受,如其为昏沉迟钝则观察其为昏沉迟钝,观察它们的生起,亦要观察它们的消逝,不要介入,也不要与之纠缠。

You will have problems in meditation. Everybody does. You can treat them as terrible torments, or as challenges to be overcome. If you regard them as burdens, you suffering will only increase. If you regard them as opportunities to learn and to grow, your spiritual prospects are unlimited.

你会在禅修中碰到问题,任何人都会,你可以视它们为可怕的折磨,或是要克服的挑战。如果你视它们为负担,你的苦恼只会有增无减,如果你视它们为学习与成长机会,你的心智发展前景一定无可限量。


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